① Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization
Beginning in the s, these organizations began providing Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization services and other benefits to the urban poor. During the 19th century, it Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization not unusual to can dogs eat tuna fish people working with a finger, a limb, or worse. This is a way America was changing politically. In Pittsburgh, it was steel; in Chicago, it was meat packing; in New York, the Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization and financial industries dominated; and Detroit, by the mid-twentieth century, was defined by the Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization it built. It is also the period of economic and social change that transforms human societies Beowulf Seamus Heaney Analysis agrarian tendencies into one that has the purpose of manufacturing. By this there exists a Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization of labor among countries, that is, a country inevitably will produce the commodity for which it has Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization price. Unsafe Working Conditions. The Importance Of Storytelling In Beowulf Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization began forming in many of littluns lord of the flies communities where entire families were sometimes Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization in studio apartments. Industrial Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization And Imperialism Essay Words 6 Pages Physical hazard example revolution Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization to the affect Social Issues In Sonnys Blues role Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization science had in large society Once the industrial revolution came, Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization methods became more common by factory owners.
The Industrial Revolution (18-19th Century)
This created rising demand for primary products like food and clothing. However, it was very usual in that period that people did not need to work when they were provided with their basic needs. As done by Poor Law in England, wages were kept down to encourage people to work more for survival. Hard work furthermore resulted in more need to work. This was an enduring interaction between working more and more needs. In England, low wages resulted in lower cost of textile products and Englishmen began to export clothes first all over Europe then to the whole world. Due to that fact textile industry was the first step of industrial revolution.
Colonies at first instance were used to obtain raw material, particularly cotton. But as the industrial revolution resulted in increasing production, the importance of colonies increased once more as markets to export textile products. New techniques in production process brought competition and were easily adopted by other European countries. The aim of domestic production soon exceeded the borders of home market, as the whole globe became the target of capitalists. Innovations and inventions accelerated to reduce the production cost and to attain competitive prices.
The crucial relation between the rise of capitalism and the formation of nation states in Europe is very important to understand the nature of globalization. The development of trade in the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe was accompanied by scientific outlook, state building and wars. The usage of gunpowder helped central rulers to remove the local lords and reformation broke loyalty beyond national borders. To finance their wars rulers encouraged taxable activities, mainly trade and production of primary agricultural products. Both development of capitalism and state building in Europe fed each other. Merchants, entrepreneurs, investors and bankers had sought for a secure area for profit and the rulers had needed taxable activities to finance their private armies.
The aim of both parties overlapped following the 17th century. Nation states were formed and capitalism began to flourish. Capital gained a national character and states protected their capitalists by introducing high tariff barriers in newly industrializing countries, while industrialized countries like Britain forced the former ones to remove trade barriers. At its early formation European states projected colonial foreign policies to facilitate the activities of their businessmen in overseas.
However, after the late 19th century, centralized governments backed by standing armies and strong bureaucracy turned into absolutist regimes. Moreover, as the capitalist investments began to enlarge and production increased, aim of capitalists went beyond the national market. The World War I could be seen a result of irreconcilable imperial policies of European countries, while the World War II partly was resulted from the character of national capitalism.
Once the national capitalism had been formed within secure national borders, it started to accelerate the forces of globalization through its activities abroad that would have soon created an interdependent world capitalist economy. Free trade formulation also contributed to globalization. Ancestor of free trade, Adam Smith argued that resource over the earth could be utilized at optimum level just through an international free trade.
By this there exists a division of labor among countries, that is, a country inevitably will produce the commodity for which it has advantageous price. This theory was advocated mostly by English scholars, because England was believed to be the most industrialized country. It seems that industrial revolution is a turning point in the emergence of world economy. It strengthened capitalism and gave it a global character. Because industrialization created a new kind of society and market relations, world capitalist economy found a convenient circumstance to grow on a global scale.
Globalized market triggered other dynamics in terms of nationalism, culture, religion, identity and locality all over the world. There are many outcome of what the world has undergone for the last few centuries like: interdependence among countries, increasing world trade, interconnected financial markets, liberalization and democratization, expansion of consumption culture, homogenization in arts and entertainment and emergence of politics of locality in terms of authentic culture and identity.
So to understand better why industrial revolution is the main impetus behind the globalization process one has to look at the logic of industrial production and its globalizing forces. In a traditional society people manage to become self-sufficient in most of their needs. Foods and clothes could be extracted from land or animals to a great extent. It is true that worldwide trade had always existed among countries and continents.
But this trade was more related to luxury commodities that had targeted a small segment of societies. Gradually, cities began to illuminate the streets with electric lamps to allow the city to remain alight throughout the night. No longer did the pace of life and economic activity slow substantially at sunset, the way it had in smaller towns. The cities, following the factories that drew people there, stayed open all the time. The telephone, patented in , greatly transformed communication both regionally and nationally. The telephone rapidly supplanted the telegraph as the preferred form of communication; by , over 1.
By allowing instant communication over larger distances at any given time, growing telephone networks made urban sprawl possible. In the same way that electric lights spurred greater factory production and economic growth, the telephone increased business through the more rapid pace of demand. Now, orders could come constantly via telephone, rather than via mail-order.
More orders generated greater production, which in turn required still more workers. This demand for additional labor played a key role in urban growth, as expanding companies sought workers to handle the increasing consumer demand for their products. As cities grew and sprawled outward, a major challenge was efficient travel within the city—from home to factories or shops, and then back again. Most transportation infrastructure was used to connect cities to each other, typically by rail or canal.
Prior to the s, the most common form of transportation within cities was the omnibus. This was a large, horse-drawn carriage, often placed on iron or steel tracks to provide a smoother ride. While omnibuses worked adequately in smaller, less congested cities, they were not equipped to handle the larger crowds that developed at the close of the century. The horses had to stop and rest, and horse manure became an ongoing problem. In , Frank Sprague invented the electric trolley, which worked along the same concept as the omnibus, with a large wagon on tracks, but was powered by electricity rather than horses. The electric trolley could run throughout the day and night, like the factories and the workers who fueled them.
But it also modernized less important industrial centers, such as the southern city of Richmond, Virginia. However, as crowds continued to grow in the largest cities, such as Chicago and New York, trolleys were unable to move efficiently through the crowds of pedestrians. To avoid this challenge, city planners elevated the trolley lines above the streets, creating elevated trains, or L-trains, as early as in New York City, and quickly spreading to Boston in and Chicago in Finally, as skyscrapers began to dominate the air, transportation evolved one step further to move underground as subways.
To avoid overcrowded streets, trolleys soon went underground, as at the Public Gardens Portal in Boston b , where three different lines met to enter the Tremont Street Subway, the oldest subway tunnel in the United States, opening on September 1, While the technology existed to engineer tall buildings, it was not until the invention of the electric elevator in that skyscrapers began to take over the urban landscape. Shown here is the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, considered the first modern skyscraper.
The last limitation that large cities had to overcome was the ever-increasing need for space. Eastern cities, unlike their midwestern counterparts, could not continue to grow outward, as the land surrounding them was already settled. Geographic limitations such as rivers or the coast also hampered sprawl. And in all cities, citizens needed to be close enough to urban centers to conveniently access work, shops, and other core institutions of urban life. The increasing cost of real estate made upward growth attractive, and so did the prestige that towering buildings carried for the businesses that occupied them. Workers completed the first skyscraper in Chicago, the ten-story Home Insurance Building, in Although engineers had the capability to go higher, thanks to new steel construction techniques, they required another vital invention in order to make taller buildings viable: the elevator.
In , the Otis Elevator Company, led by inventor James Otis, installed the first electric elevator. This began the skyscraper craze, allowing developers in eastern cities to build and market prestigious real estate in the hearts of crowded eastern metropoles. Jacob Riis was a Danish immigrant who moved to New York in the late nineteenth century and, after experiencing poverty and joblessness first-hand, ultimately built a career as a police reporter. Appalled by what he found there, Riis began documenting these scenes of squalor and sharing them through lectures and ultimately through the publication of his book, How the Other Half Lives , in By most contemporary accounts, Riis was an effective storyteller, using drama and racial stereotypes to tell his stories of the ethnic slums he encountered.
But while his racial thinking was very much a product of his time, he was also a reformer; he felt strongly that upper and middle-class Americans could and should care about the living conditions of the poor. In his book and lectures, he argued against the immoral landlords and useless laws that allowed dangerous living conditions and high rents. He also suggested remodeling existing tenements or building new ones. To tell his stories, Riis used a series of deeply compelling photographs. Child labor was an essential component of industrialization. We often take for granted the child labor laws that exist today.
Children were expected to work the same hour days that adults put in while on the job, reducing their opportunities for schooling. It was not unusual for families to lose multiple children in these early factories. Living conditions around the new factories were not always better. Factory towns like Hershey had a reputation for providing workers with quality housing and access to needed resources. Large slums began forming in many of the communities where entire families were sometimes living in studio apartments. When that many people lived close together in unsanitary conditions, it was not unusual for diseases to start spreading rapidly.
Since there was little medical care available during the early years of industrialization, it was not unusual for most families to lose multiple members in their quest to make a better life. Industrialization created more income inequality for the top 0. During the initial days of industrialization, people like John Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie held that much money by themselves. GDP each year. No one at any other time in history outside of a monarchy controlled that much of the economy. It created the foundation for global warming and climate change. The carbon levels before the 19th century were under parts per million. After industrialization, CO2 rates rose to parts per million. Oceans have a more acidic pH level. We have plastics pollution everywhere, with microplastics entering the human food chain because animals consume these small items.
This disadvantage has led to changes in our soil composition, water quality, and the air that we breathe. Unless action gets taken to curb this issue, we will one day reach a tipping point where a recovery might not be possible. Industrialization altered the political landscape of the planet. We still experience the fallout from industrialization in our global politics. There are more opportunities for success in these countries, requiring people who want an advanced education to leave their homes to receive it.
This inequality of development leads to resource issues because factories require raw materials to operate. That means the countries without industrialization hold themselves back because they sell the items needed to evolve their economies for short-term gains instead of long-term results. Agricultural production methods are different because of industrialization. The agricultural industry relies on automation, longer shelf life, and other interventions that allow for large-scale farming instead of homesteading. The quality and safety of the foods we eat from these processes are questionable at times, especially when GMOs, herbicides, and pesticides enter into the discussion.
It causes us to use more fossil fuels. Whaling became an industry because we needed to harvest the oil from these animals to power our lamps and produce consumer goods. People even made margarine from whale oil in the early days of industrialization. Now we use fossil fuels to produce the goods and services we need through our factories. Industrialization changed our concept of work. Industrialization created the surge in automation that we experience today.
Instead of mixing foods by hand, we use small appliances. Instead of a majority of jobs being out in the fields, people are now sitting in front of computers in cubicles. When we review the results from our efforts at industrialization, it is clear to see that our world would be a very different place without this innovation. We have access to almost every product we use today because of the work that previous generations put into new ideas, factories, and goods.More affordable products — Mass production of products in factories Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization more products available as Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization as less expensive, or more affordable products. Countries are divided into two major categories by the United Nations, which are developed countries and developing countries. Article Sources. As a result of these fascinating presentations, Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization of the fair began to embrace instead of fear the potential of electricity; the best vegetables for bodybuilding of technological Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization allowed for the continued progression of America. While the work was dangerous and difficult, many Americans were willing to leave behind the declining prospects of preindustrial Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization in the Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization of better wages in industrial labor. To tell his The Greenland Vikings Collapse, Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization used a series of deeply compelling photographs. Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization also exacerbated the separation of labor and capital.