🔥🔥🔥 Explain What Rules And Rituals Shape Classroom Life

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Explain What Rules And Rituals Shape Classroom Life



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Teacher establishes routines, procedures, transitions, \u0026 expectations for student behavior - Ex 6

Adjusting to the rules and routines quite nicely during the first few weeks of school, most 3-year-olds can learn to do such things as sitting without bothering others and listening to a story for 10 minutes. During lunch, they quickly get into the routine of serving themselves family style and pouring their own milk from a pitcher. Most threes fall into their own routine about toileting at certain times, although they may want to let an adult know when they are going to the bathroom. When it comes to rules, most preschoolers see them as black and white-you are either supposed to do something or not. They see rules as unchangeable. Often, they become confused or annoyed if they sense a rule is not being consistently enforced or broken.

They may even decide to ignore the rule. For instance, Mr. Parsons explains to the children that, for safety reasons, they must always hold hands and walk two-by-two whenever they go outside. So, when the alarm rings for a fire drill, and he urges the preschoolers to make a single line to go out of the building, Tiffany refuses to leave the room because she know it's a rule that her buddy must hold her hand. In order to help preschoolers clarify the rules and adjust to their surroundings, they may need help in understanding what objects are used for.

For example, when Jonah climbs on the table to reach a ball on the shelf, Mrs. Troy explains, "Tables are to eat on. You may climb on the wooden steps. Troy might also suggest to Jonah, "If you climb on the furniture again, you may fall off and hurt yourself. Young children need to feel comfortable that their teachers won't allow them or others to get hurt. Four-year-olds have high levels of physical energy as they run, kick, and move very quickly. They can be loud and noisy. They may sometimes appear to be emotionally out of control. Because of all of this natural commotion, 4-year-olds seem almost happy if adults provide some structure and boundaries for them-as long as they are perceived as fair.

If an adult deviates from the rules or a routine, the child may exhibit temper tantrums or unplacated anger. Sometimes 4-year-olds will try to negotiate their way around a rule if they think it's not working in their favor. For instance, when reminded that the clay must remain on the art table, China argued that if she put it in her pocket, no one could see it go to the dramatic-play center. Fours enjoy following self-care routines. With their improved fine motor skills, they manipulate buttons, and pull on socks and shoes. Although they may want some privacy in the bathroom, fours are well able to handle their own toileting needs.

I'm really good at that! The span of time between 5 and 6 years of age is an interesting time of social and emotional development. You may have noticed that many of the young kindergartners entering your program are eager to cooperate and help. They want your approval and like the security of the routines and structure of the classroom and even your authority there. They are not so sure they want to be "good" all the time! Since most kindergartners come to school at five or younger, you have plenty of time to enjoy this "honeymoon" phase while you work together to build the self-regulation and community skills needed for a harmonious classroom.

Of course, this is the perfect time to introduce your classroom rules and routines. Children are looking to you for guidance and structure in this new world of kindergarten. As they learn the rules, they develop a sense of autonomy within the safe structure of the classroom. During this phase of their development, 5- and 6-year-olds' increased language skills support their ability to discuss and collaborate in routine and rule making. The more children participate in the process, the better they understand and follow the rules.

This sense of ownership in the process is key to children this age who are transitioning from accepting outside authority to challenging it. In fact, the "class-made" rules can be so important to them that they will single out others who are not following them! Five- and 6-year-olds are also developing strong reasoning and thinking skills.

These allow them to be able to understand and discuss the reasons and purpose for rules and routines. It also allows them to comprehend the cause and effect relationship of rules and behavior. During this process, children need a great deal of positive reinforcement and support for their demonstration of appropriate behaviors. Since they actually don't take criticism well, 5- and 6-year-olds tend to react better to positive guidance instead of negative judgement and reprimand. We have all heard them comment "I know! This is a precious part of the heart and mind of children this age. Not only do they want to be "right," but they also love to demonstrate how they know something-and everything!

The "know-it-all" behavior comes partly from an emerging competitive nature that can start now and come into full bloom in the 6-year-old year. But it is largely a demonstration of how children in kindergarten want and need to be "seen" and "heard" in the group. This phase can be delightful or exhausting, depending on how you choose to view and use it. It is helpful to allow time and space in your routine for children to demonstrate their "knowing. Invite children to tell you what is happening next! Discussing a problem with classroom noise? Ask them to tell you what the problem is and how to solve it!

Children will feel a sense of autonomy and ownership. Five- and 6-year-olds respond well to clear expectations-both yours and theirs! Since most children at this stage want to do what it is "right," they feel most comfortable if they know what your expectations are right from the start. If you launch the year by clearly verbalizing and depicting with picture signs what you want and need from children, you will probably get it! From the first day of school, express clear expectations for turn taking, sharing, walking, talking, listening, and sitting. Once you have set these expectations in place, you will only need to remind children of the rules and routines throughout the year.

It is also important to be collaborative with children when setting classroom expectations. As you well know, fives and sixes like to think they are in charge. Ask them what their expectations are for kindergarten. Discuss these and add them to a "great expectations" chart. Keep in mind that this delicate time of the year is different for each child. While the information here is based on developmental milestones, not all children will behave similarly in the same situation. Keep in mind these developmental characteristics while responding to the individual needs of children. Create a List. List Name Save.

Rename this List. Rename this list. List Name Delete from selected List. Save to. Save to:. Save Create a List. Create a list. Save Back. Grades PreK—K. Paying Attention Routines are an opportunity for a teacher and toddler to pay special attention to one another. Talk It Over! Provide Quality One-on-One Time Early brain development is significantly influenced by the child's experience.

Build Group Routines Respectful relationships and intimate knowledge of each child helps to build a group schedule that is in tune with the sleeping and feeding patterns of all the children. Create Coping Techniques Routines can help the child to cope with difficult transitions, like saying goodbye to mommy in the morning. Anticipate Smooth Adjustments Adjusting to the rules and routines quite nicely during the first few weeks of school, most 3-year-olds can learn to do such things as sitting without bothering others and listening to a story for 10 minutes.

Clarify Classroom Rules When it comes to rules, most preschoolers see them as black and white-you are either supposed to do something or not. What You Can Do: Share stories about others. Read and discuss books about how other children manage rules or routines. Make sure routines are predictable. When there is a rhythm to the day, it's comforting for children when they know what to expect next. Widows of low-status groups have always been allowed to remarry, but widows of high rank have been expected to remain chaste until death.

Social inequality exists throughout the world, but perhaps nowhere has inequality been so elaborately constructed as in the Indian institution of caste. Caste has existed for many centuries, but in the modern period it has been severely criticized and is undergoing significant change. Castes are ranked, named, endogamous in-marrying groups, membership in which is achieved by birth. There are thousands of castes and subcastes in India, involving hundreds of millions of people. These large kinship-based groups are fundamental to South Asian social structure. Caste membership provides a sense of belonging to a recognized group from whom support can be expected in a variety of situations.

The word caste derives from the Portuguese casta, meaning species, race, or kind. Among Indian terms sometimes translated as caste are varna, jati, jat, biradri, and samaj. Varna, or color, actually refers to four large categories that include numerous castes. The other terms refer to castes and subdivisions of castes often called subcastes. Many castes are associated with traditional occupations, such as priests, potters, barbers, carpenters, leatherworkers, butchers, and launderers. Members of higher-ranking castes tend to be more prosperous than members of lower-ranking castes, who often endure poverty and social disadvantage.

In past decades, Dalits in certain areas had to display extreme deference to high-status people and were barred from most temples and wells. Such degrading discrimination was outlawed under legislation passed during British rule and was repudiated by preindependence reform movements led by Mahatma Gandhi and Bhimrao Ramji B. Ambedkar, a Dalit leader. After independence in , Dr. However, Dalits as a group still suffer significant disadvantages, especially in rural areas. Within castes, explicit standards are maintained.

Rules of marriage, diet, dress, occupation, and other behaviors are enforced, often by a caste council panchayat. Infringements can be punished by fines and temporary or permanent outcasting. Individuals and caste groups can hope to rise slowly on the hierarchy through economic success and adoption of high-caste behaviors. However, it is virtually impossible for an individual to raise his own status by falsely claiming to belong to a higher caste; a deception of this kind is easily discovered. In rural areas, many low-caste people still suffer from landlessness, unemployment, and discriminatory practices. In the growing cities, however, caste affiliations are often unknown to casual associates, and traditional restrictions on intercaste interactions are fading fast.

In some urbane circles, intercaste marriages linking mates of similar class status have become acceptable. Correlations between caste and occupations are declining rapidly. In recent years, key changes have occurred in caste observances. Even as traditional hierarchies weaken, caste identities are being reinforced, especially among disadvantaged groups with rights to special educational benefits and substantial quotas reserved for them of electoral offices and government jobs. Most Indians reside in villages, where caste and class affiliations overlap. Large landholders are overwhelmingly upper caste, and smallscale farmers middle caste, while landless laborers typically belong to the lowest-ranking castes.

These groups tend to form a three-level class system of stratification in rural areas, and members of the groups are drawing together within regions across caste lines in order to enhance their economic and political power. For example, since the late s, some of the middle-ranking cultivating castes of northern India, spurred by competition with higher-caste landed elites, have cooperated politically in order to advance their common economic interests. When looking at India as a whole, defining classes is a difficult task, rife with vague standards.

According to various estimates, the upper classes include about one percent of the population, or some ten million people, encompassing wealthy property owners, industrialists, former royalty, top executives, and prosperous entrepreneurs. Slightly below them are the many millions of the upper middle class. This group includes prosperous farmers, white-collar workers, business and professional people, military personnel, and a multitude of others, all enjoying decent homes, reasonable incomes, and educated and healthy children. Most own televisions and telephones, and many possess cars and computers.

Large numbers have close ties with prosperous relatives living abroad. Most villages have fewer than 1, inhabitants, but some have as many as 5, people. Indian villages are often quite complex and are not isolated socially or economically. Most villages include a multiplicity of economic, caste, kinship, occupational, and even religious groups linked vertically within each settlement. Residents typically range from priests and cultivators to merchants, artisans, and laborers. Various crucial horizontal linkages connect each village with many others and with urban areas both near and far.

In daily life and at colorful festivals and rituals, members of various groups provide essential goods and services for one another. Traditionally, villages often recognized a headman and a panchayat, a council composed of important local men. Usually, disputes were adjudicated within the village, with infrequent recourse to the police or courts. Today, the government supports an elective panchayat and headman system, which is distinct from the traditional system, and, in many cases, mandates the inclusion of members who are women or very low caste.

According to a schedule rotating every few years, the head of the council of a certain percentage of villages must be a woman or a Dalit. State and federal government regulations increasingly intrude into village life, diminishing traditional systems of authority. Further, dissent and competitiveness seem to have increased in many parts of rural India as a result of the expanding involvement of villagers with the wider world via travel, work, education, and television, and increased pressure on land and resources as village populations grow.

The acceleration of urbanization is profoundly affecting the transformation of Indian society. Mumbai Bombay is currently the sixth largest urban area in the world at 18 million, and Kolkata Calcutta ranks fourteenth at 13 million. The largest cities are densely populated, congested, noisy, polluted, and deficient in clean water, electricity, sanitation, and decent housing. Slums abound, often cheek-by-jowl with luxury apartment buildings, with the roads overrun with pedestrians, cattle, refuse, and vehicles spewing diesel fumes. Traditional caste hierarchies are weak in cities, but caste ties remain important, as scarce jobs are often obtained through caste fellows, relatives, and friends. Ingenuity and tenacity characterize poor urban workers supporting themselves through a multitude of tasks as entrepreneurs, petty traders, and menial laborers.

The ranks of the growing middle class are increasingly evident in cities, where educational and employment opportunities benefit them. For them, as for all in the city, linkages are affirmed through neighborhood solidarity, voluntary associations, and festival celebrations. Cities, of course, are the great hubs of commerce, education, science, politics, and government, upon which the functioning of the nation depends. These bring vivid depictions of urban lifestyles to small-town dwellers and villagers all over the country, affecting the aspirations of millions. Largely led by educated urban women, the movement seeks gender justice on a wide variety of issues, focusing particularly on the escalating issue of dowry-related murders of young wives, which number in the thousands annually.

In ten years, the most populous state, Uttar Pradesh, expanded more than 25 percent to some million, equal to 60 percent of the population of the United States. India supports a population more than three and a half times the size of the American population in an area about one-third the size. While new agricultural crops and techniques are expanding productivity, forests, rangeland, and water tables are diminishing. As competition grows, political, social, ecological, and economic issues are hotly contested. Justice in matters pertaining to class, gender, and access to desirable resources remains an elusive goal.

India is but one of many nations facing these crucial problems and is not alone in seeking solutions. For many centuries, the people of India have shown strength in creating manageable order from complexity, bringing together widely disparate groups in structured efforts to benefit the wider society, encouraging harmony among people with divergent interests, knowing that close relatives and friends can rely upon each other, allocating different tasks to those with different skills, and striving to do what is morally right in the eyes of the divine and the community.

These are some of the great strengths upon which Indian society can rely as it seeks to meet the challenges of the future. Bumiller, Elisabeth. New York: Fawcett Columbine, Das Gupta, Monica, and Li Shuzhuo. Available from mdasgupta worldbank. Dubey, Suman. Leonard A. Gordon and Philip Oldenburg. Dugger, Celia W. Fuller, C. Caste Today. Delhi: Oxford University Press, Gould, Harold A. Ishwaran , 1: India: Culture and Society. Yogendra K. Delhi: Chanakya, Jacobson, Doranne. Imtiaz Ahmad. New Delhi: Manohar Book Service, Purdah in India: Life Behind the Veil. Sylvia Vatuk. Papanek and G. Myron L. Armonk, NY: M. Sharpe, Raju and D. Bagchi London: Routledge, Falk and R.

Jacobson, Doranne, and Susan S. Women in India: Two Perspectives , 3rd enlarged edition. Lynch, Owen M. Armonk, New York: M. Mandelbaum, David G. Society in India: Continuity and Change , 2 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, Mendelsohn, Oliver, and Marika Vicziany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Miller, Barbara D. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Papanek, Hanna, and Gail Minault, eds.

Roland, Alan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Sharma, Miriam. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, Sharma, Ursula. Concepts in the Social Sciences. The disadvantages of being female have been amply researched; see, for example, Miller , Das Gupta and Li , and Bumiller In general, census figures show lower sex ratios in northern India than in the south, but in only one state—the southern state of Kerala—are there more females than males 1, females per 1, males.

For recent overviews on changes in caste, see Fuller and U. Sharma For a focus on untouchability, see Lynch , Mendelsohn and Vicziany , Deliege , and Zelliot Are you an educator or education professional looking for professional development resources? Take a look at our online courses and see if they're right for you! Unsupported Browser Detected. Purity and Pollution Many status differences in Indian society are expressed in terms of ritual purity and pollution, complex notions that vary greatly among different castes, religious groups, and regions.

Social Interdependence One of the great themes pervading Indian life is social interdependence. Family and Kinship Family Ideals The essential themes of Indian cultural life are learned within the bosom of a family. Family Authority and Harmony In the Indian household, lines of hierarchy and authority are clearly drawn, and ideals of conduct help maintain family harmony. Life Passages The birth of an infant is celebrated with rites of welcome and blessing, typically much more elaborate for a boy than for a girl.

Your students should never know when something in Criminal Justice Goals Explain What Rules And Rituals Shape Classroom Life life is bothering you. Hint: It was invented to fit a language that previously used a borrowed writing system. Explain What Rules And Rituals Shape Classroom Life, J. OK Password forgotten?