✍️✍️✍️ Analyse The Importance Of Supporting Childrens Independence
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Supporting independence: Acknowledging the struggle with children (low)
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And vinylfor the first time ever on camera, a close up encounter with my mouth as i gag on my fingers and drool all over my ballgag. This analysis provides new descriptive evidence on age and duration into partnership of women's first intimate partner violence IPV victimization. MethodsData come from ever married women ages of 15—49 years in nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys in 30 countries collected from to in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Descriptive analysis is performed. ResultsApproximately Among ever married women who first experienced violence post-union, abuse began, on average, 3. Approximately Regionally, average years into union of abuse initiation showed little variation and average age at first abuse among once married women is ConclusionsResults imply that primary prevention for IPV must take place on average before first union before age 19 years, to capture the most relevant and at risk target population.
Resources allocated toward risk factors in childhood and adolescence may be most effective in combating initiation of IPV globally. Despite this finding, there remains a lack of evidence on effective interventions for primary prevention of abuse during women's early years in developing settings. PurposeThis study investigates the causal effect of Kenya's unconditional cash transfer program on mental health outcomes of young people. MethodsSelected locations in Kenya were randomly assigned to receive unconditional cash transfers in the first phase of Kenya's Cash Transfer Program for orphans and Vulnerable Children. The primary outcome variable was an indicator of depressive symptoms using the question Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.
Secondary outcomes include an indicator for hopefulness and physical health measures. Logistic regression models that adjusted for individual and household characteristics were used to determine the effect of the cash transfer program. ResultsThe cash transfer reduced the odds of depressive symptoms by 24 percent among young persons living in households that received cash transfers. Further analysis by gender and age revealed that the effects were only significant for young men and were larger among men aged 20—24 years and orphans. ConclusionsThis study provides evidence that poverty-targeted unconditional cash transfer programs, can improve the mental health of young people in low-income countries. There is promising recent evidence that poverty-targeted social cash transfers have potential to improve maternal health outcomes; however, questions remain surrounding design features responsible for impacts.
In addition, virtually no evidence exists from the African region. This study explores the impact of Zambia's Child Grant Program on a range of maternal health utilization outcomes using a randomized design and difference-in-differences multivariate regression from data collected over 24 months from to Results indicate that while there are no measurable program impacts among the main sample, there are heterogeneous impacts on skilled attendance at birth among a sample of women residing in households having better access to maternal health services.
The latter result is particularly interesting because of the overall low level of health care availability in program areas suggesting that dedicated program design or matching supply-side interventions may be necessary to leverage unconditional cash transfers in similar settings to impact maternal health. There are compelling reasons to believe that orphans — many millions due to the AIDS epidemic — are more likely to be sexually victimized during childhood. Few studies have empirically investigated sexual violence disparities, and those that do suffer from methodological limitations and limited geographic scope.
We used nationally representative data on female adolescents 15—17 years from 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We built multilevel logistic models to test for an association between the dependent variables orphanhood and parental absence and sexual violence, both within countries and pooled across all countries. Paternal orphaning OR 1. Fewer findings reached significance within individual countries. Our findings suggest that the lack of a father in the home due to death or absence places girls at heightened risk for childhood sexual abuse; further research identifying pathways of vulnerability and resilience specific to this population is needed.
Our findings also indicate that abuse often starts at an early age; thus promising programs should be adapted for younger age groups and rigorously tested. ObjectiveTo examine trends in equity in contraceptive use, and in contraceptive-prevalence rates in six East African countries. MethodsIn this repeated cross-sectional study, Demographic and Health Surveys Program data from women aged 15—49 years in Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda between and were analyzed.
ResultsEquity and contraceptive-prevalence rates increased in most country regions over the study period. Notably, in rural Rwanda, contraceptive-prevalence rates increased from 3. The Pearson correlation coefficient between improvements in concentration index and contraceptive-prevalence rates was 0. ConclusionThe results indicate that countries seeking to increase contraceptive use should prioritize equity in access to services and contraceptives. Using a randomized experiment in Ecuador, this study provides evidence on whether cash, vouchers, and food transfers targeted to women and intended to reduce poverty and food insecurity also affected intimate partner violence.
Impacts do not vary by transfer modality, which provides evidence that transfers not only have the potential to decrease violence in the short-term, but also that cash is just as effective as in-kind transfers. Accumulated evidence from dozens of cash transfer CT programs across the world suggests that there are few interventions that can match the range of impacts and cost-effectiveness of a small, predictable monetary transfer to poor families in developing countries.
However, individual published impact assessments typically focus on only one program and one outcome. This article presents two-year impacts of the Zambian Government's Child Grant, an unconditional CT to families with children under age 5, across a wide range of domains including consumption, productive activity, and women and children's outcomes, making this one of the first studies to assess both protective and productive impacts of a national unconditional CT program. We show strong impacts on consumption, food security, savings, and productive activity. However, impacts in areas such as child nutritional status and schooling depend on initial conditions of the household, suggesting that cash alone is not enough to solve all constraints faced by these poor, rural households.
Nevertheless, the apparent transformative effects of this program suggest that unconditional transfers in very poor settings can contribute to both protection and development outcomes. BackgroundIntimate partner violence IPV is highly prevalent and has detrimental effects on the physical and mental health of women across the world. Despite emerging evidence on the impacts of cash transfers on intimate partner violence, the pathways through which reductions in violence occur remain under-explored.
This mixed methods study aimed to understand the pathways that led to this reduction. MethodsWe conducted a mixed methods study that combined secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial relating to the impact of a transfer programme on IPV with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with male and female beneficiaries. A sequential analysis strategy was followed, whereby qualitative results guided the choice of variables for the quantitative analysis and qualitative insights were used to help interpret the quantitative findings.
We found little evidence that any type of IPV increased as a result of the transfers. DiscussionWhile cash and in-kind transfers can be important programmatic tools for decreasing IPV, the positive effects observed in this study seem to depend on circumstances that may not exist in all settings or programmes, such as the inclusion of a training component. Moreover, the programme built upon rather than challenged traditional gender roles by targeting women as transfer beneficiaries and framing the intervention under the umbrella of food security and nutrition — domains traditionally ascribed to women.
ConclusionsTransfers destined for food consumption combined with nutrition training reduced IPV among marginalised households in northern Ecuador. PurposeWe examine the relationship between educational attainment in adolescence on young women's lifetime experience of sexual violence in Malawi and Uganda. MethodsExposure to Universal Primary Education policies in the mids serves as a natural experiment to estimate the causal effect of schooling on women's subsequent experience of sexual violence using an instrumented regression discontinuity design and Demographic and Health Survey data. We find no effect of grade attainment on ever experiencing sexual violence among a sample of 4, Malawian women aged 19—31 years.
In addition, we find no relationship between grade attainment and month sexual violence in either country. Analysis of pathways indicates increased grade attainment increases literacy and experience of premarital sex in Malawi and reduces the probability of ever being married in both countries. ConclusionsKeeping girls in school results in a number of benefits for young women; however, protects against lifetime experience of sexual violence only in Uganda. It is possible that overall higher grade attainment, particularly at secondary school levels is driving this effect in Uganda. More research on this relationship is needed, as well as on effective interventions, particularly those which can be taken to scale related to enhancing the quality and quantity of education.
Childhood malnutrition remains a significant global problem, with an estimated million children under the age of five suffering from stunted growth. This article examines the extent to which cash transfer programmes can improve child nutrition. It adopts a framework that captures and explains the pathways and determinants of child nutrition. The framework is then used to organize and discuss relevant evidence from the impact evaluation literature, focusing on impact pathways and new and emerging findings from sub-Saharan Africa to identify critical elements that determine child nutrition outcomes as well as knowledge gaps requiring further research, such as children's dietary diversity, caregiver behaviours and stress.
Child mortality is one of the most pressing global health and policy issues in the developing world. The leading drivers of death—pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria—are preventable and treatable. However, these illnesses are exacerbated by a lack of accessible nutrition, water, basic and preventive health services, and sanitary living conditions—all factors which are more likely to disproportionately impact the poor. Using longitudinal, cluster-randomized program data from to , we run a generalized linear latent and mixed method estimation model on a sample of children 0—7 years and under-5 years of age.
Furthermore, no impacts on health care seeking in the event of illness were detected. As many as one billion children experience violence every year, and household- and community-level poverty are among the risk factors for child protection violations. This paper reviews evidence and develops a framework to understand linkages between non-contributory SSNs and the experience of childhood emotional, physical and sexual violence in low- and middle-income countries. We catalogue 14 rigorous impact evaluations, 11 of which are completed, analysing 57 unique impacts on diverse violence indicators. Among these impacts, approximately one in five represent statistically significant protective effects on childhood violence.
Promising evidence relates to sexual violence among female adolescents in Africa, while there is less clear evidence of significant impacts in other parts of the developing world, and on young child measures, including violent discipline. Further, few studies are set up to meaningfully unpack mechanisms between SSNs and childhood violence; however, those most commonly hypothesized operate at the household level through increases in economic security and reductions in poverty-related stress , the interpersonal level improved parental behaviours, caregiving practices, improved psychosocial well-being and at the child-level protective education and decreases in problem or risky behaviours. It is important to emphasize that traditional SSNs are never designed with violence prevention as primary objectives, and thus should not be considered as standalone interventions to reduce risks for childhood violence.
However, SSNs, particularly within integrated protection systems, appear to have potential to reduce violence risk. Linkages between SSNs and childhood violence are understudied, and investments should be made to close this evidence gap. The empowerment of women, broadly defined, is an often-cited objective and benefit of social cash transfer programs in developing countries. Despite the promise and potential of cash transfers to empower women, the evidence supporting this outcome is mixed.
In addition, there is little evidence from programs at scale in sub-Saharan Africa. The quantitative component was a four-year longitudinal clustered-randomized control trial in three rural districts, and the qualitative component was a one-time data collection involving in-depth interviews with women and their partners stratified on marital status and program participation. Our study found that women in beneficiary households were making more sole or joint decisions across five out of nine domains ; however, impacts translated into relatively modest increases in the number of decision domains a woman is involved in, on average by 0. Qualitatively, we found that changes in intrahousehold relationships were limited by entrenched gender norms, which indicate men as heads of household and primary decision makers.
We highlight methodological challenges in using intrahousehold decision making as the primary indicator to measure empowerment. Results show potential for unconditional cash transfer programs to improve the financial and intrahousehold status of female beneficiaries, however it is likely additional design components are need for transformational change. Time discounting is thought to influence decision-making in almost every sphere of life, including personal finances, diet, exercise and sexual behaviour.
In this article, we provide evidence on whether a national poverty alleviation programme in Kenya can affect inter-temporal decisions. We administered a preferences module as part of a large-scale impact evaluation of the Kenyan Government's Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children. Four years into the programme, we find that individuals in the treatment group are only marginally more likely to wait for future money, due in part to the erosion of the value of the transfer by inflation. However, among the poorest households for whom the value of transfer is still relatively large we find significant programme effects on the propensity to wait.
We also find strong programme effects among those who have access to credit markets though the programme itself does not improve access to credit. Cash transfer programmes have recently emerged as promising interventions for HIV prevention among adolescents in Africa. However, the pathways through which risk reduction occurs are not well understood. We examine data on adolescents and youth from the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children, which has been shown to result in delayed sexual debut among adolescents. We explored three potential mediating pathways: schooling, socio-economic status and psycho-social status. None of these hypothesised mediators greatly altered the main effect. However, school attendance had a larger protective effect on sexual debut among females but was only increased by the programme among males.
This gendered pattern of effects may explain why we did not see a mediating effect of the cash transfer through schooling, despite schooling's protective effects against early sexual debut. Results also suggest that cash transfer programmes in Africa can contribute to the reduction of HIV related risk behaviours. Among policymakers, a common perception surrounding the effects of cash transfer programmes, particularly unconditional programmes targeted to families with children, is that they induce increased fertility. We evaluate the Zambian Child Grant Programme, a government unconditional cash transfer targeted to families with a child under the age of 5 and examine impacts on fertility and household composition.
The evaluation was a cluster randomized control trial, with data collected over 4 years from to Our results indicate that there are no programme impacts on overall fertility. Our results contribute to a small evidence base demonstrating that there are no unintended incentives related to fertility due to cash transfers. We use data from a large-scale social experiment involving households, half of whom were randomised out to a delayed-entry control group, that was implemented to assess the impact of the programme.
We find that the CGP has no discernible impact on school enrolment of children age 7— However, when we break the sample by older 11—14 and younger 7—10 children — based on the grade structure of the Zambian schooling system — we find a significant impact among children age 11—14, which coincides with the exact age range where a sharp drop-out begins to occur in Zambia with point estimates in the range of 7—8 percentage points. Finally, we provide evidence on the potential pathways through which the unconditional cash transfer impacts on enrolment.
Households in the CGP spend more on education, and in particular on uniforms and shoes, two items cited as key barriers to school enrolment in study areas. Extensive research documents that social network characteristics affect health, but knowledge of peer networks of youth in Malawi and sub-Saharan Africa is limited. We examine the networks and social participation of youth living in extreme poverty in rural Malawi, using in-depth interviews with 32 youth and caregivers. We describe youth's peer networks and assess how gender and the context of extreme poverty influence their networks and participation, and how their networks influence health. In-school youth had larger, more interactive, and more supportive networks than out-of-school youth, and girls described less social participation and more isolation than boys.
Youth exchanged social support and influence within their networks that helped cope with poverty-induced stress and sadness, and encouraged protective sexual health practices. However, poverty hampered their involvement in school, religious schools, and community organizations, directly by denying them required material means, and indirectly by reducing time and emotional resources and creating shame and stigma. Poverty alleviation policy holds promise for improving youth's social wellbeing and mental and physical health by increasing their opportunities to form networks, receive social support, and experience positive influence. This paper explores the extent to which government-run cash transfer programs in four sub-Saharan countries affect food security and nutritional outcomes.
Our cross-country analysis highlights the importance of robust program design and implementation to achieve the intended results. We find that a relatively generous and regular and predictable transfer increases the quantity and quality of food and reduces the prevalence of food insecurity. On the other hand, a smaller, lumpy and irregular transfer does not lead to impacts on food expenditures. We complement binary treatment analysis with continuous treatment analysis to understand not only the impact of being in the program but also the variability in impacts by the extent of treatment. IntroductionPoverty is a chronic stressor that can lead to poor physical and mental health.
This study examines whether two similar government poverty alleviation programs reduced the levels of perceived stress and poverty among poor households in Zambia. MethodSecondary data from two cluster randomized controlled trials were used to evaluate the impacts of two unconditional cash transfer programs in Zambia. Participants were interviewed at baseline and followed over 36 months. Poverty indicators assessed included per capita expenditure, household food security, and nonproductive asset ownership. Fixed effects and ordinary least squares regressions were run, controlling for age, education, marital status, household demographics, location, and poverty status at baseline.
ResultsCash transfers did not reduce perceived stress but improved economic security per capita consumption expenditure, food insecurity, and asset ownership. Among these poverty indicators, only food insecurity was associated with perceived stress. Age and education showed no consistent association with stress, whereas death of a household member was associated with higher stress levels. ConclusionIn this setting, perceived stress was not reduced by a positive income shock but was correlated with food insecurity and household deaths, suggesting that food security is an important stressor in this context. Although the program did reduce food insecurity, the size of the reduction was not enough to generate a statistically significant change in stress levels.
The measure used in this study appears not to be correlated with characteristics to which it has been linked in other settings, and thus, further research is needed to examine whether this widely used perceived stress measure appropriately captures the concept of perceived stress in this population. In Africa, cash transfers are rapidly expanding as a key social protection tool for reducing chronic poverty and hunger and increasing investment in human capital.
After nearly a decade, policymakers, researchers and staff from UN Agencies and NGOs will come together next month in Dakar, Senegal to discuss the evidence, share their experiences and look to new ways forward. The nearly participants from 30 countries across the African region and beyond will gather with the objectives of: Increasing awareness of cross-regional evidenceIdentifying gaps for future researchMaking evidence-based recommendations for governments to improve design, implementation and integration of cash transfer programmes. The workshop comes on the heels of a recently published book highlighting the Transfer Project experience of social protection stakeholders working together to improve cash transfers.
The authors reveal that one of the key components of successful cash transfers in Africa has been the transparency of knowledge sharing that occurs in the region — the upcoming workshop reinforces the strong collaboration among policymakers, development partners and researchers as they work together to improve policy, implementation and evaluation. In addition, it will feature presentations on innovative topics around targeting, fragile settings, mobile payments and local economy impacts, challenging participants to think more creatively about the next generation of programming and evaluation potential. George Okech, FAO Representative, ZambiaThe Dakar meeting happens at a strategic time when social protection initiatives — especially cash transfers — continue to gain steam throughout the world.
Giving cash has been shown as an effective strategy in developing contexts and is being scaled-up in humanitarian and fragile settings. Additionally, albeit controversially, governments are experimenting with the idea of providing a universal basic income in industrialized countries as well. The Transfer Project offers just one example of a platform that provides space for honest discussions about the successes and challenges of cash transfers, while pushing the boundaries to explore alternative large-scale options that hold potential for being effective. By providing participants with practical and actionable recommendations, the workshop demonstrates how experts can come together to effectively exchange information and work on research uptake to improve the lives of children and their families and contribute to the realization of global development goals.
One of the many topics that will discussed is the latest research on the potential of linking cash to services in the social, health and agricultural sectors, for example. If two different programmes are targeting the same community and they talk to one another, you get more benefits. Read the article. The meeting will bring together national governments, research institutions and international organizations to discuss latest developments on cash transfer programmes in Africa. Since , the Transfer Project has accumulated a critical mass of evidence on the multiple impacts of government run, cash transfers in Africa. Many governments have scaled-up programmes, raising important new questions on policy and implementation.
By bringing together stakeholders to share in-depth experiences, the Transfer Project workshop will provide an unusual opportunity to discuss lessons learned and look at new ways for moving forward. The 6th — 8th April workshop will enter a new frontier for the Transfer Project, with the scope of topics and geographic focus broader than years before. Discussions will be held on planned or initial impact evaluations, as well as emerging findings, methodological gaps and unanswered questions around cash-plus livelihoods, agriculture interventions and nutrition. This is also the first year the workshop will highlight case studies and cash transfer evaluation experiences from Asia. Among the approximately 50 invited participants include government partners implementing and evaluating cash transfer programmes, and other social protection experts from academic institutions, non-governmental organizations and international development agencies.
For the most up-to-date information on Transfer Project research and the workshop, be sure to follow on Twitter TransferProjct and Facebook www. Of the countries observed, 41 per cent of children under age 15 live with a respondent who is moderately or severely food insecure, with 19 per cent of those living with a respondent who is severely food insecure, and 45 per cent living with a respondent who reported not having enough money to buy food in the previous 12 months. These estimates represent approximately million, million, and million children under age 15, respectively. Trends in per capita income were also measured as a determinant of food security to observe how the relationship fluctuated during the Great Recession. South Sudan was declared to be undergoing a famine in February and only recently, thanks to human aid, is no longer classified as undergoing famine, according to a BBC report.
As of May , 5. After South Sudan, Liberia, Malawi, Burundi, and Sierra Leone have the next highest prevalence of food insecurity among households with children, each with more than 80 per cent of households with children facing moderate to severe food insecurity. The countries recording the least food insecurity prevalence in the study were Japan, Bhutan, Singapore, Sweden, and the Republic of Korea, each with prevalence of food insecurity at or under five per cent. India represents the largest burden of food insecurity for children under 15, accounting for Here, the study reveals that while the total number of children under 15 in India with moderate to severe food insecurity represents the highest burden in countries and four territories observed, the prevalence of food insecurity in India is not as high compared to many other countries.
Prevalence is mapped in blue from light to dark, with greater prevalence of food insecurity indicated by the darker countries on the map. Burden is visualized for each country with a yellow bubble over the respective country, with greater burden of food insecurity indicated by larger bubbles. In the context of this study, prevalence is defined as the extent of food insecurity measured as a proportion of the population. Here, it measures households with children who are food insecure as a proportion of all households with children, for each country. Burden is the number of children under 15 who live in food insecure households in each country. This chart shows prevalence and burden of food insecurity measured by the study, clustered by region.
The data demonstrates the prevalence of food insecurity in households with children under age 15 solid blue line is higher than prevalence in all households dashed line. While the map visualizes burden of food insecurity in bubbles by size, this chart shows the burden by household type with and without children. Overall burden of food insecurity is shown by the clustered bars, with burden for households with children under age 15 purple bars , households without children blue bars , and the total number in millions making up the total burden for all food insecurity regionally. In all regions, prevalence of food insecurity among households with children is higher than food insecurity among all households. A woman and her children carry sacks of maize home from a small farm where they work in exchange for food, in the village of Chipumi, Malawi.
The research also looks at income as a determinant of food security over time and demonstrates the relationship between household income per capita and food security So the prevalence is among children who live in food insecure households, but the burden is the number of children U15 for all households and for households with children under age The data reveal that prevalence of food security decreases after in all households following the onset of the Great Recession, while sensitivity of food security to income peaks slightly in and remains fairly constant until , when sensitivity to income increases.
This paper is a first step in quantifying the extent of food insecurity among households with children, on a global scale as well as regionally. It also aims to motivate continued global efforts to monitor and address progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goal to end hunger SDG 2. Further research to better distinguish between food insecurity in adults and children is needed to better address mitigating child hunger. Six common misperceptions associated with cash transfers are investigated in a new research brief using data from eight rigorous evaluations of government unconditional cash transfer programmes across seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
Perpetuated in policy debates, these innacurate perceptions undermine well-being improvements and poverty reduction, in Africa and globally. This paper rethinks social protection through the lens of citizenship considering how social protection programmes can stimulate vulnerable citizens to make justice-based claims for their rights and demand accountability for the realization of those rights. Attended by government representatives, NGOs, academics, and donors, the workshop facilitated cross-country learning, dialogue and debate to inform the development of social protection policies. Now in its seventh iteration, the Transfer Project workshop has grown from 39 participants in , to over participants in It is increasingly seen as an important forum where governments exchange and learn about the use of evaluations and evidence produced by UNICEF Innocenti and partners in decision-making processes across the region.
Policy InfluencersThe workshop was officially opened by Hon. The second day featured evidence from across the region and spanned various themes, including gender, child labour, and cash plus approaches. In addition, collaborative research with Innocenti on impact evaluations in Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia were showcased by national and academic partners.
A small group discusses how the political economy influences social protection policies and programmes at the 7th Transfer Project Workshop held April in Arusha, Tanzania. Media EngagementWhile garnering the support of stakeholders is indispensable for the implementation and growth of social protection policies, there is also a need to translate the evidence to speak to a wider audience. This one-day crash course in social protection and cash transfers equipped the media with the latest thinking, evidence, and arguments on the case for scaling up social protection instruments. The event also provided an opportunity to discuss the important role the media plays in shaping development policies, as well as identifying what is required from researchers to better cover social protection findings.
Read national media coverage on cash transfers following the workshop in The Herald Zimbabwe. You cannot create a social protection policy without evidence or evidential support. The workshop concluded with a fascinating session on converting evidence into action, featuring perspectives from donors, government, civil society, national researchers and multi-lateral perspectives. Chaired by Transfer Project co-founder, Ashu Handa, the session gave an unfiltered insight into the challenges of and lessons on evidence-uptake to influence decision-making.
As the Transfer Project enters its second decade, research priorities and demands are changing. It was particularly exciting to see governments presenting the use of evaluations and evidence produced by Innocenti in their decision-making processes. Confronting Six Common Perceptions about Unconditional Cash Transfers in Africa, summarizes evidence on six common assumptions about cash transfer programmes in Africa. The paper uses data from eight in-depth evaluations conducted on large government-run unconditional cash transfer projects in sub-Saharan Africa, under the Transfer Project. The arguments supporting unconditional cash transfer programming for poor households in developing countries are numerous. Evidence shows cash transfers are effective in reducing poverty and also have widespread social and economic benefits — often larger than traditional forms of development assistance.
An increasing body of evidence also shows that cash transfers may provide protection during humanitarian crises, as reflected in the high-level commitments at the World Humanitarian Summit, and the Grand Bargain. Despite their widening application, and growing robust evaluation-evidence base, some skeptical policymakers cite anecdotal evidence that cash is wasted or mis-used.
Depending on your purposes, situation and group, you can change this exercise in various ways, for example:. As facilitator it is recommended you practice the suggested cutting solution so that if necessary you can demonstrate it before or afterwards, depending on your adaptation to the group. Beware of using this activity in any situation that could cause embarrassment to overweight people or where delegates would be uncomfortable with the inter-personal proximity required.
The qualification of putting the ring of paper over a given number of people is that while standing necessarily very close together they are able to pass the paper ring over their heads and down to the floor, enabling them to step over and thereby through the ring without breaking it. Here is the cutting diagram, assuming that the sheet of paper is first folded. This is one solution to the exercise. If you know another please send it. Here are examples of alternative solutions. Fold the sheet of paper in half, and cut it through both sides of the paper, as shown in the diagram, in the following sequence:. Cut slits 8 are adequate - the diagram shows 12 , from the folded edge up to about cm of the open edge, each slit being about 1.
Cut a slit between each of the above slits, from the open edge to about cm of the folded edge. Cut along the folded edge, but not the ends marked with blue circles. You should then be able to open the paper into a ring which comfortably fits over two people. Cutting more slits increases the size of the ring, as would using a larger sheet of paper. Slit dimensions can be increased for larger sheets. A further adaptation of the exercise is to issue one large sheet of paper for example from a broadsheet newspaper to a group of people up to ten or even twenty people and task them to work out how to cut or tear, for added difficulty the paper into a seamless ring which will fit over the entire group.
This creates lots of problem-solving activity in the planning stage, and much physicality and togetherness when the ring is being passed over the group. Team members can also plan the step-through strategy and other logistical aspects of the exercise. You will be surprised how large a ring can be created. An A4 sheet easily makes a ring circumference of 3m. A big newspaper sheet easily produces a ring circumference of 7m. Cutting lines are shown in red and blue. The diameter of the ring produced would increase by lengthening the parallel spiral pattern, requiring cuts closer together.
I understand from another contributor thanks Brian that in s London this method was used by young lads with bus tickets, to ease the boredom of the daily school commute.. The technique entails cutting or tearing the red line first, and then the blue. The cutting lines are shown in red. The solution is similar to the first folded solution, but without the fold. If you have another solution please send it. Inspired by a sketch on Armstrong and Miller's TV comedy show in October , this is an amusing variation of the usual around-the-table introductions at the start of courses and other gatherings.
You have 30 seconds to think of your statements, after which according to the order decided by the facilitator each person makes their statements, pausing after each truth and lie for the group to decide which is which. While producing some amusement, the exercise can reveal surprising and impressive information about people hidden talents and claims to fame, etc. The activity can therefore be useful for team-building from a Johari awareness viewpoint, and it also stimulates creative thinking and group interaction. The exercise also requires group analysis and decision-making in deciding which are the true statements and which are the lies. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences model is a useful reference if using the exercise to illustrate the nature of individual natural or hidden capabilities.
This exercise is adapted from the Armstrong and Miller comedy sketch. Adapt it further to suit your own purposes. According to myth, due to planetary gravitational effects or similar nonsense, it is possible to stand an egg on its end during the vernal Spring equinox, which is on or close to 21 March, when night and day are equal. In fact it is possible with a little patience and a steady hand to balance an egg on its end on a flat level surface, any time. The big end is much easier. Here's one on my kitchen table.
This interesting feat of manual dexterity and myth-busting provides the basis for an enjoyable and fascinating group exercise. The temptation to pun is almost irresistible. A raw egg is perhaps easier to balance than a hard-boiled egg because the weight sinks to the bottom and creates a sort of 'googly-man' effect. The science is not especially clear about this and if there are any professors of egg balancing out there I'd welcome your input.
You can use this activity in various ways, to demonstrate or emphasise patience, discovery, positive thinking, questioning assumptions, breaking barriers, stress avoidance; and for team contests. Incidentally you can tell the difference between a hard-boiled egg and a raw egg by spinning the egg. A raw egg spins slowly and speeds up, and continues spinning after you stop it; a hard egg spins faster and stays stopped. These differences are due to the independent motion of the liquid in the raw egg, whereas a hard egg behaves as a single mass. An additional point of interest is that a few grains of salt enables a very quick balancing 'trick', which is of course cheating.
Facilitators are recommended to practice the task before asking others to try it. The balancing is easier on slightly textured surfaces and a lot more difficult on very smooth surfaces. Eggs with slightly pimply shells are much easier to balance than eggs with very smooth shells. Some eggs are easier to balance than others so have a few spare for any that simply will not balance. The game can be used to make introductions a little more interesting than usual, or as a separate ice-breaker activity.
Split large groups into teams small enough to review answers among themselves. The exercise can be varied and expanded for groups in which people know each other:. A quick flexible exercise for groups of all sizes and ages. It's based on a simple drawing game we have all played as children. The drawing is then passed to the next team member who must add to the drawing.
Time spent by each person in turn on the drawing is limited to 5 seconds. The facilitator can shout 'change' when appropriate. No discussion is permitted during the drawing, nor any agreement before the drawing of what the team will draw. Continue without the above review for a longer activity, involving scoring and a winning team:. After one minute of drawing each team must agree privately a description maximum three words of what they have drawn, and pass this to the facilitator, to be referred to later.
Teams must identify their drawing with a team name. The drawings are then passed around the group for each team to guess and write on the reverse of other team's drawings what they believe the drawing is or represents. Teams are not permitted to look at the reverse of the drawings at other descriptions guessed until they have decided on a description. Drawings are awarded two points for each exact correct description achieved, or a point for a partly correct description. Teams are awarded two points for each correct description guessed, or a point for a partly correct description guessed.
If you score the exercise, ensure teams are instructed to put their team name on their drawing, and alongside their guessed descriptions on the reverse of all other drawings. Teams can be told to agree what they are to draw at the beginning of the exercise. Deduct ten points for teams drawing any of the following 'obvious' subjects: cat, house, car, man, woman, spacecraft, etc. Award bonus points for teams drawing anything highly obscure and yet recognizable, especially if resulting from no prior discussion.
When the facilitator calls out 'team change', one person and the drawing must move to a different team, which can be likened to certain changes that happen in real organizational work teams. It produces complete chaos of course. You have five minutes to discover an interesting, surprising and separate connection you share with each person in your team. A different connection with each person, not a single connection that every team member shares. Try to find a connection or something in common that surprises both of you. The purpose of the exercise is to ensure that each person of the team ask some questions and gives some answers about themselves and all other team members, and so gets to know each other better.
Discussions can be in pairs or threes. The team can decide how best to enable each person to speak to every other team member in the time allowed. This requires more care in larger teams. Group review of individual connections is unnecessary although particularly interesting connections can be volunteered and highlighted as examples if people are keen to do so. More general review aspects include for example, optional depending on your own situation and wider aims for the group :. Larger teams need more time to ensure everyone learns something new and ideally establishes an interesting connection with each other team member.
Younger people might be happier with questions about less deep subjects, which is fine. Guide the group as you consider appropriate. Multiple Intelligences. Personality types and models. Play as a team game in pairs, threes, fours or fives, which keeps everyone involved all the time, and introduces teamwork and tactics. The game is essentially team bowls played like beach bowls or green bowls using balls of newspaper. Scoring is one point for each ball closest to the 'jack' ball. If a team gets say three or four of its balls closer than the balls of any other team then three or four points would be scored accordingly. The potential to score high - notably for big groups split into big teams - means a winning team can emerge surprisingly late, which sustains full involvement of all players.
The larger the floor area then the more energetic the game will tend to be. The game can also be played outside provided there is no strong wind. For a more messy game outside for kids, supply a bucket of water and instruct that the balls should be wet.. The game is very adaptable. Consider and decide your own rules and scoring for your own situation. If playing the game with individuals for example in a small group of five , allow players two balls each. This makes the game more interesting for individuals, in which the order of throwing can be reversed for the second ball, making it fairer for all, assuming playing only one 'end'.
Or play big 'marbles' instead - best on a square playing area - in which players eliminate other players by rolling their ball to hit another player's balls. Players take turns to roll their balls. The winner is the last player remaining whose ball has not been hit by another ball. Players have to decide how close to risk leaving their balls to other balls, so it becomes quite a tactical exercise. Simplest rule here is to eliminate only the first ball hit with each roll, not rebounds. See also the bin toss game , and newspaper towers , for other newspaper games ideas. This is a quick adaptable exercise for small groups, or for large groups if split into self-facilitating teams, or alternatively pairs. It's also a longer discussion game for pubs, dinner-parties, etc.
Take a minute to consider - What thirty seconds of your life would you most want to re-live, if you only had thirty seconds left? For the purposes of the exercise participants can choose several different life experiences, provided the total time is no more than thirty seconds. Exclude sex from highlights if there is a risk that it will unhelpfully distract, embarrass or be too dominant. Shorten and concentrate the exercise by reducing the highlights time period from thirty to ten seconds, or lengthen and deepen the exercise by increasing the time period to ten minutes or an hour. Note: To make the exercise more dynamic and forward-looking you can encourage people to consider especially life highlights which can be repeated or extended in some way.
Childbirth is for many people a highlight which is not likely to be repeatable, although this can of course prompt thoughts and discussions about the importance of family compared to other life issues. Maslow motivation and Hierarchy of Needs. Herzberg , Adams , and Personality Theory. This website accepts no liability for any marital or romantic strife arising if you play this game socially in couples, especially under the influence of drink or other inhibition-reducing substance. Here's a really quick exercise, ideal for ice-breakers - minutes - for groups any age or size. Equipment: Lots of coins, in case participants need extra. At last a use for all the shrapnel in your piggy bank.. You have one minute to make a personal logo - representing yourself - from the coins.
Large groups can be spilt into teams of people. Combine team coins. Produce a single team logo, themed according to the situation. Optionally ask teams to guess the meaning of other teams logos, before the explanations. Split the group into two. Half leave the room while remaining half make their personal coin logos. Half return to room and try to match logos to people. Repeat the process enabling the guessers to make, and the makers to guess. Ask participants to explain their logos to the group, or if pressed for time and for large groups - split the group and have the logos explained among teams of threes.
If running the exercise in teams - review the discussions and feelings leading to the design of the logo, and the team theme if appropriate. To enlarge the exercise and offer material about self-and mutual awareness see the Johari Window model. See the money slang and history page for lots of interesting facts about coins and money. This game can be played by one group, or between two or more teams competitively. The activity is more dynamic if played in competitive teams, minimum three players per team, ideally per team. This game can be played by very large groups, in teams, for example at conferences. The exercise involves devising and using a simple coded non-verbal unspoken communications system.
This is a very flexible game concept, and can be adapted in many ways to suit your situation and purposes. These instructions are for competitive teams playing the game. Adapt it accordingly for a single group. For groups of four people or more, best with six people or more. Teams of more than ten become chaotic which is okay if that's what you are seeking to demonstrate. Given the variation and interesting dynamics within this exercise you are especially recommended to test it first with a group so you can understand how it works and the sort of controls and guidance or freedoms that you would like to apply for your own situation.
It's a very flexible concept; adapt it to suit your needs. This exercise is subject to a lot of variation, including the solutions that people devise. If you are a facilitator trying to imagine how it works, this might help.. At least three strings need to be connected to the top open end or near the top of the transporter tube, which keeps the tube upright and hanging from the connected strings being pulled tight by team members, and enables the tube potentially to be suspended and moved anywhere by and between the stringholders.
Given that people cannot move their positions once the ball is loaded into the transporter tube, the method of 'playing out' string, as well as pulling it, is crucial. Strings that are too short become a problem. At least one team member needs a string connected to the bottom of the tube to enable the tipping. If just one string is connected to the bottom of the tube then the tube can be tipped from just one direction, which means the team needs to have good control over the positioning of the tube. Having more than one string connected to the bottom of the tube from more than one position increases the options for the direction of the tipping, but the downside is that beyond a certain point, depending on the coordination capability of the team the difficulty tends to increase with more people having more strings connected.
Any bottom-connected string that crosses with a top-connected string will encounter a problem when it comes to tipping, because logically the bottom-connected string must get higher than the top-connected strings, hence the example solution which follows. At its simplest, imagine the receptor tube the target into which the ball must be tipped being in the centre of a clock face. Three team members are positioned at, say, 12, 4 and 8 o'clock, each of whom has a string connected to the top of the transporter tube, and a fourth team member, say, at 6 o'clock, has a string connected to the bottom of the transporter tube to enable the tipping. The ball is placed in the transporter tube, say by the team member at 12 o'clock.
At this time no one can move from their position. The people at 4 and 8 take up the slack while 12 string is kept tight enabling the tube to be lifted. While 4 and 8 pull the tube towards the clockface centre, 12 plays out, keeping a tight string. When the tube is in the correct position for tipping, 6 can pull, while the other three strings stay tight to keep the tube's position, or adjust as necessary. You will see various creative solutions, often by bigger teams, involving for example:. A quicker simpler version of this game can be played using drinking straws, a ball of rolled-up paper and a very thin dinner-table place mat:. A quick simple ice-breaker or bigger exercise related to questioning, and working together, here is the instruction, for groups of any size and any ages:.
You can devise your own situations besides these to suit your purposes. There are countless other possible situations. Increasing the variety of situations allocated will tend to increase the time of the activity and especially its review. Ask people to work in pairs or threes to test and reflect and refine and maybe role-play the questions. There are no absolute 'right' or best questions - there are many effective questions, depending on the situation and people's needs, but there are certainly questions which do not work well and which should be avoided.
This exercise does not suggest that we can or should use merely one question to identify solutions for anything, especially crucial partnerships. The purpose of the exercise is to focus attention on quality, relevance, style and preparation of questioning, according to the situation and people involved. Questioning is powerful and helpful when prepared well, but wastes everyone's time and creates problems when it is not. Whatever you do in the review, ensure people understand the nature and purposes of open and closed questions, which is explained in the Questioning section of the sales training page.
This is a simple exercise requiring no equipment or materials preparation, for groups of any size and age. We all tend to classify and stereotype each other - 'pigeon-holing' is a common expression for this. Usually this sort of classification is subjective, unhelpfully judgemental, and sometimes of course it's unfair to the point of being illegal discrimination. If as a facilitator you use these examples feel free to instruct the group to think of their own ideas, and not merely to use one of the examples. The purpose of the exercise is to encourage people to get to know each other better, to collectively consider the nature of all individuals within the team, and to think of each other in ways that are quite different to how people tend usually to classify others.
You can stipulate how many subgroups should be classified within the team s , and how many different classifications are required one split using a single classification is simplest and quickest , or you can offer wider more open flexibility, and see what the teams develop for themselves. The Johari Window is a useful reference model, as is up to a point employment background on discrimination, minorities, bullying, etc.
Approach the activity with a broader view than reminding people about employment law and discrimination:. The way we understand and regard each other is a big subject, offering far more helpful outcomes than merely applying a legal code. For groups of four to ten people. Split larger groups into teams with leaders who can facilitate the exercise. Introduction: Facial expressions are an important part of communications. There are many different emotions and corresponding facial expressions. Some are easier to interpret than others. This exercise helps illustrate different expressions and how some are more obvious and easy to 'read' than others. Each team member must think of one emotion or two or three emotions, for a longer exercise , which they should then write separately on a slip of paper.
Fold the slips of paper and put it into a cup or glass in the centre of the table, to enable 'blind' selection. Each person must then in turn take one of the folded slips and show the emotion on their face to the team, who must guess the emotion. See Body Language and Mehrabian's communications theory for background. This exercise is a simple team-working idea, adaptable for any group size, and any ages. Choose a well known picture or diagram or cartoon - ideally one well-known and full of detail. Cut the picture retaining a copy into as many pieces - ideally equal squares or oblongs - as as there are participants for the exercise. Issue each person a piece of the picture. The exercise is more challenging and fascinating if the group does not see the whole original picture until the end of the activity, although this question is entirely a matter for local judgement.
Instruct people to create a copy of their piece of the picture exactly for example ten times bigger, according to length and width dimension. Size increase ten-times, five-times, twenty-times, etc is up to you - the more then the longer the activity takes, and the bigger the final result. You should clarify what 'ten-times bigger, according to length and width dimension' actually means, or different interpretations of this could spoil the result which is a lesson in itself about consistency of planning and communications, etc. Multiplying width and length dimensions by ten produces an area which is actually a hundred-times bigger in area.
This seems a lot, but it's very reasonable if seeking to produce a good sized result to stick onto a wall. For example, if individual pieces are say 2 inches square, i. Technically 'ten times bigger' refers to area, but this isn't very easy to imagine - it's easier to plan and explain the exercise in terms of width and length dimensions. Give a time limit minutes depending on complexity of the work and the magnification level you specify. When all the enlargements are completed ask people to assemble them into a giant copy of the original picture - on the table, or onto a wall using sticky putty, be careful not to use a wall whose surface could be damaged when removing the sticky putty..
London Underground Tube Map. Other ideas for pictures: geographical maps and weather maps, biological diagrams, well-known posters and cartoons. You can adapt the exercise by altering the 'ten-times widthand length dimensions' enlargement factor, for instance five-times would make the task easier and quicker; twenty or a hundred-times would make it more difficult and longer, and also more impactful, if you have time and space, and enough paper drawing materials The resulting assembled whole picture will indicate how well each team communicated and managed its own divisionalization of the task.
Based on an old numbers game this activity can be adapted in many different ways for groups and teams of all sizes. You can easily expand the game, add complexity, and turn it into a much longer planning and tactics exercise. The basic game for two teams, or people in pairs, playing each other :. With increased complexity the activity becomes increasingly suitable for teams and allowing a strategic planning stage. Complex versions of the game are far less easy to plan and control. The game obviously allows mathematically-minded people who are often quiet and understated in the background to demonstrate their value to the group, which can be an additional benefit of the exercise. Obviously, given snowy weather, take everyone outside and build a snowman.
Or several of them. Have the team brainstorm the rules and aims of the exercise, mindful of group size, teams, and proximity of the activity to the managing director's office window. Throwing snowballs can be harmful to your team-mates' health and to the managing director's office windows. You have been warned. If the MD or other senior executive sees what is happening and asks you to explain the purpose of the activity, here are some suggested answers delete as appropriate :. Businessballs accepts no liability for damages arising from inappropriate use of this activity.
If in doubt, make some newspaper towers instead. Activities and exercises for group selection days and assessment centres can be designed to stretch the participants more if the task is issued several days before the day of the assessment. This allows more preparation and team-working among the candidates, which in turn enables a fuller deeper test and demonstration of people's capabilities.
The exercise can be used if issued on the day of the assessment, but obviously due allowance must be made for the resulting time pressure in meeting such a big challenge. Accordingly the exercise is suited to training courses lasting two days or more when delegates can work evenings in their team on the activities. Create presentation to sell proposition to the 'board of directors' or an investor - a part which can be played by the recruitment team. Deliver presentation to include activities and experiences of the project group.
This is a helpful and non-threatening way to show the effects of stress and confusion, especially in teams, and by implication the effects of stress on productivity, organisational performance and healthy working. Ideally for teams of eight to ten people. Split larger groups into teams of and establish facilitation and review as appropriate, appointing and briefing facilitators since each team requires facilitation. You will need for each team about five balls of various sizes, compositions, weights, shapes, etc. Five balls is probably adequate for most teams of eight people. Using very different balls makes the exercise work better for example a tennis ball, a beach ball, a rugby ball, a ping-pong ball, etc - use your imagination.
The ball must be kept moving the facilitator can equate this to the processing of a task within the work situation. A dropped ball equates to a failed task which the facilitator can equate to a specific relevant objective. A held ball equates to a delayed task. When the team can satisfactorily manage the first ball, the facilitator should then introduce a second ball to be thrown and caught while the first ball remains in circulation.
Equate the second ball to an additional task, or a typical work complication, like a holiday, or an extra customer requirement. Continue to introduce more balls one by one - not too fast - each time equating them to work situations and complications. Obviously before not too long the team is unable to manage all the balls, and chaos ensues. Allow the sense of increasing stress and confusion to build, according to the ball-handling capability of the team. Introducing balls too quickly will not allow the stress to build. Stress theory and stress management. Johari Window model mutual and self-awareness. Assertiveness especially for junior people managing stress caused from above.
Thanks to Karen Wright of wrightminded. This is a quick simple activity for groups of any size. For large groups spilt into teams of about six people and organise the appointment of team leaders for self-facilitation and review. You will perhaps think of other questions on similar lines. Use one or a number of questions to prompt discussion and thereafter a review of the issues. Most people unsurprisingly tend to favour their sense of sight. You will find plenty of variation aside from this however, and generally the activity and discussion provides a quick and interesting way to explore personal strengths and preferences without the aid of a testing instrument.
Your group might have additional ideas about other 'senses' which you can include in the considerations, for example speech, movement, etc. If so then the exercise relates more strongly to Multiple Intelligences theory. Arrange appropriate timings and presentation or discussion of the ideas arising. Here's the question. You can adapt various exercises from it to suit your situation and aims:. Everyone would prefer Christmas and New Year celebrations to more suitably address the needs and issues of the modern age. What changes would you make? You can add a context if you wish, for example, changes for business, changes for society, changes for kids, changes for the planet, changes for global cooperation, etc.
Email me suggestions and I'll publish the best ones on this page. The exercise especially demonstrates the influencial power of mobile phones and by inference other communications methods such as emails to disrupt effective working, time management and organisational efficiency. Ask all delegates to switch on their phones or blackberries - or is it blackberrys?.. Say that this is a demonstration of the disruptive and negative effects of technology controlling people rather than vice-versa. You can of course introduce and position the activity to suit other purposes which fit.
Ask everyone to text a friend or two or several friends each whom they know to be keen in responding to text messages. Then continue with the training or conference session, and wait for the chaotic interruptions to begin. The chaos is a very audible demonstration of what typically happens in organisations where people are not managing their incoming communications which according to most research is the vast majority of folk. When your point is made you can you'll need to ask everyone to switch off their phones again. The Mehrabian research is a useful reference area. Quizballs 48 Xmas quiz questions and answers. See the 'Smile' words and Chaplin story for inspiring positive outlook and triumph through adversity.
Charlie Chaplin died on Christmas Day Seasonal acronym for when work and customers must necessarily fit in around the festivities and holidays. Seasonal acronym explaining why most business comes to a grinding stop for two whole weeks at the end of the year. Yuletide acronym, when procrastinators everywhere are joined by most of the western world in deferring anything other than a life-threatening emergency until the Christmas blow-out is properly organized and maximum enjoyment extracted.
Customer services and despatch expression, especially appropriate approaching department close-down for weekends, holidays, Christmas, etc. Understandable response from overworked despatch departments and customer services staff when attempting to explain quite reasonably that it's not possible to process urgent last-minute orders received at lunchtime on the day before holiday shut-down. Expression origin - "Boxing day" - the day after Christmas - from the custom in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of servants receiving gratuities from their masters, collected in boxes in Christmas day, sometimes in churches, and distributed the day after.
Spaghetti and Marshmallow Towers. Helium Stick. Baking Foil Models. Animal Perceptions Exercise. Businessballs Quickies. Many more activities on this page below can be used or adapted to give a seasonal twist. For pure laughs try the funny Weakest Link answers and Letters to the Council which serve as illustrations of communications breakdowns, if you need a context or excuse for sharing them.. Fantisticat is an interesting way to look at fresh starts and the New Year, especially for young people or those facing or desiring change.Sacrificial Ruals In Shirley Jacksons The Lottery of Malawi's unconditional cash transfer improves youth mental health. Having now become classics of our time, the Harry Potter ebooks never fail to bring comfort and escapism to readers of Analyse The Importance Of Supporting Childrens Independence ages. She claims Analyse The Importance Of Supporting Childrens Independence she was trafficked to London when Analyse The Importance Of Supporting Childrens Independence was