⚡ Thomas Monson Biography Essay

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Thomas Monson Biography Essay

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President Thomas S. Monson’s Biography.

Occasional mention is made of Campion "Campian" in the comic strip 9 Chickweed Lane i. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English composer, poet and physician Poetry portal. Cambridge University Press. Macy accessed 4 March , grovemusic. Wilson, John Coperario. A new way of making fowre parts in counterpoint Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Renaissance music. List of Renaissance composers. Baroque music. List of Baroque composers. Allegri G. Caccini Coelho J. Dowland Franck Frescobaldi Gabrieli V. Galilei C. Gibbons O. Amodei d'Anglebert H. Lully M. Marais J. Pachelbel J. Playford H. Purcell Reincken Rossi Sanz A. Albinoni J. Various verses from the Book of Mormon, written speech, and poem of choice.

In this course, students will study economics by way of the seven principles of economics and the leading ideas of sound economy presented in F. Term II will take students through various forms and philosophies of government using materials written by John Locke, William Blackstone, Montesquieu, and other political writings. In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through written compositions essays , memorizations, document study and analysis, speeches, and written and oral exams. The Senior Thesis class is intended to introduce the seniors to the process and techniques involved in academic research and writing.

This course will also provide help and assistance in completing the Senior Thesis which is both a graduation requirement and considered to be a capstone project for seniors at American Heritage School. Consequently, each student will be required to research and write a 6, word thesis on an argumentative topic selected by the student. Topics will need to be approved by the instructor. Research for the Thesis must be in academic sources and largely depend on peer reviewed articles and materials. Each student will present and defend their thesis before a panel of judges on March 16, Students will also write, edit, and submit an essay for publication by the school regarding their experience at American Heritage.

Students will also perform other assignments and write other projects throughout the course. Students will demonstrate their mastery of the curriculum through the following tasks:. This introductory college-level course is an extension of the English 11 course in American argument. Building on the themes and readings from English 11, students in this course will develop additional skills in rhetorical argumentation. Students will practice composing the three types of essays from the free response portion of the AP exam: argument, rhetorical analysis, and synthesis. Through both timed and extended writing assignments, students will develop the ability to draw upon the resources of the English language to facilitate intentional communication.

Whereas students in this course are expected not only to master the academic skills of argument but also to engage appropriately in the ongoing arguments within their communities, students will regularly respond to texts from local and national current events. Although one of the purposes of this course is to prepare students to take the AP examination, this is not the focus of the course which is really about developing the compositional skills necessary to succeed in college and, more importantly, to engage as active citizens in democratic dialogue. Course Description Hancock : Students will use a variety of written genres, with a particular focus on argumentative writing, to understand how specific writing skills and dispositions can distill, refine, and communicate understanding of truth.

Students will receive instruction in various writing related subjects such as: the writing process, various writing styles, academic research, MLA format and citation, and revision techniques. Students will evaluate mentor texts and work on building their writing intuition. Note that, while some writing assignments will be graded within the Written Portfolio class, the major papers will fall under their English grade. Course objectives for this course are as follows:. Students will graduate from a five-paragraph essay to an eight and eleven paragraph essay.

Students will study the contributions of world civilizations through the study of geography, culture, and literature. In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through weekly essays, mapping, word studies, oral presentations, and creative projects. For many students, the most challenging part of class is to master the breadth of the historical time period spanning from the pre-mortal life to s.

To support your student, please consider reviewing the weekly email verbally with your student. Course Description Hilmo : The 9 th Grade History Curriculum examines world history beginning with the Creation and moving forward until approximately the beginning of the Renaissance. Due to the expansive nature of the course, we will focus on select events, people, cultures and ideologies with an emphasis on government development and how these subjects relate to the Restored Gospel of Jesus Christ.

General Course Objectives for this course specify that students will demonstrate mastery of the curriculum through the following tasks:. In this course, students will learn methods of communication both written and oral. The course will focus on the history, syntax, and etymology of the English language. For many students, the most challenging part of class is to develop the higher-level reasoning skills necessary to understand these pieces of ancient literature.

To support your student, please consider reading the texts along with your student, practicing the roots using flash cards, and reviewing the weekly email verbally with your student. All studies will be founded in the governing principles of the gospel of Jesus Christ. We will study materials from the primary genre of the novel, biography, autobiography, short story, poetry, essay, letter, sermon, speech, and scripture as literature. A Master Project will include reading a biography on a hero who moves forward the cause of Christ.

This involves creating an extensive Notebook and oral presentation. Scholars will learn through lectures, discussions, presentations, reports, oral and written exams, quizzes, 4R sheets, essays, speakers and celebrations. They will also have opportunities to create and display works of art. Scholars will demonstrate their understanding through creating literature of their own. The most reliable way to access specific information about course work is on-line and newsletters. We encourage parents to contact teachers frequently through e-mail, phone calls, and visits to the classroom. The expectation is that scholars will develop Christian character and self-government through consistent preparation and participation in all activities of this course. Please provide quiet time and space for your scholar to 4R.

Encourage them to contact the teacher if they are uncertain about an assignment. Discuss what they are reading and 4R with them. Encourage them to be prepared with homework on due dates. Scriptural foundations and principles, as well as the study of the history of the English language will be core to our studies this year. Improvement of orthography penmanship is expected. Spelling will be a focus, implementing Riggs phonograms and rules.

The students will study prosody by reviewing versification and figures of speech. We will memorize marvelous selections of poetry from Longfellow, Dickinson, Shakespeare and other poets and sources. In our study of etymology, we will review the basics and emphasize word analysis. Dictionary studies will include many word studies and curricular vocabulary. Syntax grammar studies will build upon all that scholars have previously learned concerning sentence analysis and the diagramming of complex sentences. The full nature and extent of grammar will be taught as a foundation for success in grades eight through twelve at American Heritage School.

We will use sentences from our history, literature and scripture which will be analyzed, broken into shorter sentences and recombined in terms of form and arrangement considerations. Composition will address creating essays, short stories, poetry, letters, dialogue writing, etc. Scholars will learn the Language Arts Writing Methods. Daily and weekly assignments are given. The most reliable way to receive specific information about course work, including topics and timing is through the Parent Portal, calendars, phone calls, checking homework folder, calling the teacher, class visits, and discussing assignments with your scholar.

Students will learn through lectures, handouts, worksheets, group projects, media, discussions, assigned student presentations, speakers, exams oral and written , essays, and field trips. The most reliable way to receive specific information about course work, including topics and timing, is through phone calls, On-line, newsletters, calendars, and school visits. For many students, the most challenging part of class is to consistently use 4 R research, reason, relate, and record principles in their lives and work; turn in work completed to the best of ability and on time; prepare for and complete a Master Project and memorize facts and principles.

To support your student, please check the homework calendar online or in the homework folder. Please help with final proofing of written work, including, but not limited to Word Studies; T-Charts, and essays without re-writing, please. Provide time for your scholar to read Literature and History assignments. Students will learn the basics of literary analysis and research thesis structure, support, and organization. Writing assignments and instruction will center around 11 th grade English curriculum and the classics.

Students will learn techniques of peer review, writing with purpose and clarity, and supporting claims with textual evidence and in-depth analysis. This course is designed as a continuation of word processing skills. We know that it becomes more and more essential for students to understand these basic skills at a younger age — such is the time in which we live. Students will continue working on mastery of the following skills:. The choral experience continues, with the singing curriculum facilitating greater understanding of healthy singing and more independent part-singing skills. The students continue to solidify their understanding of musical elements such as melody, rhythm, harmony, and musical form.

The students apply their understanding of musical notation through a variety of singing and rhythmic activities. Specific to 6 th grade is a study of Spiritual Lives of the Great Composers. Key Texts : Jaccard, Jerry L. In this course, students will learn understanding that they are part of the Divine Design. They learn that partnering with the spirit; they may all become wonderful artists. The students develop their talents through persistent efforts in drawing and painting. They each have personal sketchbooks provided by our school, where weekly homework is required. In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through three events that will give each student an opportunity to display their art.

These events include a gallery competition in December, a State-wide competition, that will challenge them, in developing Arbor Day posters, and the American Heritage School Art Show which will display all work completed during the year. For many students, the most challenging part of class is to complete assignments during class time, keep them organized, and remember their sketchbooks. This course reinforces basic math concepts previously learned and introduces new concepts. Topics covered include numeration, basic operations, fractional concepts fractions, decimals, percent, ratios, rates, estimation, and number theory. The goal for all students is to have a thorough foundation of concrete mathematical concepts and procedures that will enable student to succeed as they progress through spiral review in the field of math.

In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through daily exercises and cumulative tests, which will be taken every 5 lessons or nearly every week. The most reliable way to receive specific information about course work, including topics and timing, is through weekly newsletters. For many students, the most challenging part of class is to master rules for signed numbers and conceptual understanding of fractions and manipulation skills for working with fractions.

In this course, students will learn grammar, spelling, Latin roots, composition styles biography, auto-biography, persuasive, cause-effect, poetry, newsletter, etc. All of our learning will be principle-based. We will use the notebook method as a way of recording. We will be writing across all subjects of the curriculum. In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through daily assignments, writing assignments, oral reports, and memorizations.

For many students, the most challenging part of class is to record all assignments in their best cursive, and stay focused and keep up with the lessons. This includes the weekly memorization and spelling review, as well as a twenty-minute daily reading time. Please allow for and help your child find a quiet place for one hour of homework each night. Students will study parts of speech, parts of a sentence, types of sentences, diagramming, editing and mechanics. Students will be able to apply grammar concepts correctly in casual and formal speaking and writing.

Students will study vocabulary from class literature sources and be able to use context clues, grammar skills, and dictionaries to determine definitions and connotations. Students will continue to practice correct and neat cursive formation. Cursive will be required for all written assignments throughout the curriculum. Students will learn how to Research, Reason, Relate and Record specifically assigned principle-based words.

Students will be able to research the definition including related synonyms ; reason and record the meaning of the word through individually selected relative quotes from LDS leaders and other wise men and women; relate ways to personally apply the reasoned principle; and then conclude with a personal definition based on their research, reasoning, and personal relating in a well-written complete paragraph. Students will learn how to write 5 paragraph essays for various topics throughout the curriculum, including research and works cited skills. Students will be able to practice using proper public speaking skills: eye contact, poise, articulation, inflection, and projection throughout their recitations. Student will be able to apply their memorization and speaking skills to oral report presentations assigned throughout the curriculum.

Students will explore key thematic messages such as:. All seven FACE principles will be discovered and discussed in each of these novels through the teacher reading aloud, researching, reasoning, relating, and recording. We will complete word studies, research vocabulary, and complete character charts of the major and supportive characters. We will use the notebook method for recording. We will have daily discussions. In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through daily vocabulary notebook additions, chapter work, reading comprehension assessments, oral presentations, group discussions and individual and group work.

For many students, the most challenging part of class is to participate and assess on the significant amount of reasoning, relating, and writing involved. Students will learn through the principle approach methodology researching, reasoning, relating, and recording through oral reports, maps, notebooks, and PowerPoints. In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through daily assignments and assessments written and oral. Students will demonstrate depth and understanding of key concepts discussed and their relation to the seven principles of Personal and Civil Liberty. We will also use activity sheets and 2 written history reports throughout the year.

For many students, the most challenging part of class is to keep up with reasoning and relating through writing and to participate in classroom discussion. To support your student, please consider initiating conversations with your child regarding principles, lessons, and events connected with each civilization. Discuss with your students the seven principles of American Christian Education as they relate to the Old Testament and World Civilization history. In this course, students will identify and memorize the countries and capitals located in Asia, Europe, and Africa. Students will learn through the principle approach methodology researching, reasoning, relating, and recording while using maps, notebooks, PowerPoints, and atlases.

In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through map sketches and quarterly tests written and oral. Some will require a memorization of facts while others will demonstrate depth of understanding in key concepts and how they relate to the Seven Principles of Personal and Civil Liberty. For many students, the most challenging part of class is to memorize the vast amount of information about people, places, and events studied in geography. To support your student, please consider drilling Middle East, Asian, European, and African capitals and countries, key places, and events connected with these civilizations.

This course is designed as a continuation of keyboarding skills and an introduction to word processing skills. The students continue to solidify their understanding of melodic and rhythmic concepts, as well as major and minor modes, musical form and other compositional tools. They learn about key signatures and expand their knowledge of musical intervals. Specific to 5 th grade is a study of the songs of the Underground Railroad and African-American Spirituals. In this course students will learn to create artwork with their own hands and know that they are part of the Divine Design. The students will have an introduction to many tools, mediums and styles of creating art images. They will learn about the great masters of the past and that in partnering with the spirit, they can all become accomplished artists.

The students will develop their talents through persistent efforts in the art practices of coloring, cutting, drawing, painting, clay-building, and print-making. In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through two main events that will give each student an opportunity to display their art. The first event is a gallery competition in December celebrating the Christmas Season. The second is the American Heritage art show in May where the work of outstanding artists will be displayed in every grade level from work completed during the year.

Guest artists will also be invited to come and demonstrate their skills and knowledge. The most reliable way to receive specific information about course work including topics and timing is on-line where the scope and sequence of each class will be posted starting next week. For many students, the most challenging part is completing assignments during class time and keeping themselves organized. To support your student please consider coloring and cutting at home and encouraging creativity in any media. All students will be expected to do their own personal best performance.

The 5 th graders will keep a sketchbook with weekly assignments. Participation will be the main emphasis of grades given in every grade level. In this course, students will apply basic arithmetic concepts through the foundations of geometry, measurement, algebra, and scale and graph reading through daily lessons taught in class, daily problem sets twenty-five questions , and timed math mastery practice sets. In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through assessments, which will be given after approximately five lessons have been taught and will be about on a weekly basis.

The most reliable way to receive specific information about course work, including topics and timing, is on-line or newsletters. To support your student, please consider checking to see that the daily problem set is done each day and going over concepts to help answer questions that may arise at home. About 20 minutes of class time will be used for working on the problem set, however it is helpful to go over the set at home. In this course, students will learn orthography spelling, penmanship ; etymology vocabulary, word study ; syntax grammar ; composition; poetry; and oration. Students will practice writing many original compositions by writing a first, second, and final draft.

They learn to memorize and then practice speaking to large audiences when they present The Patriotic Program to the school and community. In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through spelling notebooks and spelling tests; grammar workbooks; root-word flash cards; and word studies. They will write reports, letters, essays, stories, poetry, and other forms of composition. The most reliable way to receive specific information about course work, including topics and timing, is on-line or in the Class Newsletters. Students will demonstrate mastery of the phonograms through composition with accurate spelling and grammar skills, practicing cursive writing and penmanship as they record what they have learned in their notebooks; memorizing vocabulary; doing word studies; making their own set of flash-cards to learn thirty Greek and Latin Root Words; using grammar to reason as they learn to diagram sentences.

In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through memorizations i. The most reliable way to receive specific information about course work, including topics and timing, is on-line or class newsletters. Students will be able to analyze the elements of literature, primarily through researching the background of the book, the author, and the setting; studying the vocabulary of the book as we read the literature together and discover the plot; and reasoning together about how the main characters show good or bad traits that we would want or not.

Students will learn through classroom lessons, discussions, maps, timelines, research papers, history reports, artifact showings, demonstrations, and celebration activities. In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through quizzes, tests, memorizations, projects, worksheets, and the Freedom Festival Essay. To support your student, please consider asking about the stories they hear from history and letting them share their understanding of them. In this course, students will be able to identify the causes of the Revolution, the War of Independence, the establishment of our Constitution and government, its Westward settlement, and the Civil War.

The students will learn primarily through mastering the vocabulary of geography and studying each region of the United States as they research each state and record what they have learned by labeling and identifying locations on maps. We reason to learn how Heavenly Father made the world in such a way as to make His Plan of Happiness possible and relate this to each region or state as we use geography in our literature, history, and study of the Doctrine and Covenants.

We memorize the states and capitals as we learn about them. In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through a State Report, map-work of each of the United States regions with questions and tests, and finishing their own United States Flash Cards to study and memorize for the final Fifty States and Capitals Test. In this course, students will learn fundamental skills using beanbags, playground balls, hoops, basketballs, jump ropes, scooters, and the parachute , enjoy rhythmic movement, play games, and experience quiet time.

The children will learn primarily through play. In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through performing in a school-wide dance festival. To support your student, please consider enjoying recreational activities as a family such as swimming, biking, and playing sports. You could run a marathon with your child, take walks, rake leaves, or do other work projects together. Enrolling your child in a sports program such as soccer, basketball, football, or swimming is also a great way to help them be active.

It is the beginning of the choral experience with supporting repertoire selected from rounds, partner songs and 2-part equal-voice literature. Singing activities facilitate the expansion of vocal range and technique. Students will continue to develop music notation reading fluency. New rhythmic concepts will include more complex dotted rhythms and compound meter. New melodic concepts will include high do, fa and ti. Students will learn to consciously discriminate between major and minor modes.

They will expand their awareness and understanding of musical form. Students will become familiar with instruments of the orchestra and to discriminate between them both visually and aurally. This course is designed as an introduction to keyboarding skills. Students will begin their mastery of the following skills:. In this course, students will learn new skills, building on the skills and repertoire from kindergarten. What they can do and sing is given a name. The main focus continues to be to provide musical growth in five areas: 1 Singing ability, 2 rhythm, 3 aural perception, 4 creativity and 5 spiritual development. The third grades will continue to extend their knowledge of notation, identifying more note names on the treble clef, conducting 3 beat meter, introducing low la and low sol.

The students will add more rhythmic patterns, learning dotted half note three-ee-ee and syncopation ti-ta-ti , dotted quarter notes ti-tum and tum-ti , other forms of rhythms that involve sixteen notes- ti-ki-ti - two sixteenths and an eighth note ti-ti-ki —eighth note and two sixteenths and continued staff work. The students will continue to work with the pentatonic scale 1-s-m-r-d that will also include low La and low Sol. The students will know what the pentatonic scale is. The students will learn about changing meters in one song. What an octave, P5th, P4th are.

The students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through the demonstrations of hand signals, reading the music, using felt staffs, white board, music books, and reading from the board. The students will continue as the lower grades to have prayers, scriptures at the beginning of class. The students will be in a grade choir in the Patriotic Program in March. The students will do a devotional in April focusing on Christian Character. The students will continue with their in-tune skills that will challenge them to bring beauty to their sing with tone quality and diction. The skills learned in First grade about quarter and eight notes ta and ti-ti will be reviewed and more patterns added to the seven they already know.

The students will review the patterns of l-s-m and will echoing short melodic patterns, written rhythmic dictation and adding to understanding of basic note notation through recognizing and conducting four beat meter, recognizing half notes two-oo and sixteenth notes ti-ki-ti-ki , learning G, A, F and adding solfege notation of do-re. The students will work on all of the different patterns that go with the addition of do and re. In addition to being able to discuss their learning, students will demonstrate their understanding of these topics through their music books, and demonstrations of hand signals, reading the music, using felt staff or white boards.

The students will be involved in a grade choir for the Patriotic Program in March. In the Kindergarten and First Grade course work it talks about prayers, scripture memorizing and composer study, the students will continue to do this. The students will continue working on in-tune skills, building on what was learned last year or if the student is new taking them from where they are with their ability to sing in-tune.

The students will review finding the heartbeat in all the different songs they know. When all students can do this, there is a make conscious lesson where they learn that the heartbeat has a name- beat. The beat has a symbol and what it looks like, its real name is quarter note but we call it ta. The same procedure is done with the eight notes ti-ti it has two sounds on one beat. The students will learn to conduct this basic pattern. The students will be able to tell the high and low notes in their simple folk songs and give them the names of sol and mi. The students will learn the note la. The students will learn all the patterns associated with 1-s-m.

They will use the established hand signs and translate this knowledge to written form. The students will be able to read examples on the board with the 1-s-m that they do not already know. The students will be able to write their songs on green felt staffs, or white boards or in their beat books. The children will continue learning about different composers and move their music. The children will make up their own song using the l-s-m pattern and write this in their beat books.

The children also do a devotional the end of January that focuses on our pioneer heritage and music that supports the devotional. We continue what was talked about in the Kindergarten course work with prayers, scripture memorization, and music being a gift from God, etc. The first grades will learn 4 Spanish folk songs. Communal ownership of resources necessarily inhibits individual choice and imposes certain allocations and uses, whilst restraining others LPPO Private property relations allow the individual to choose which things to labour on and with, and hence how to develop.

Secondly, he adopts Hegel's argument that different distributions of material goods to specific individuals tend to make explicit different personalities in these individuals. This is different from but does not contradict what was argued previously. Green is now also saying that property is important to human development in a non-neutral way. For example, an artist as an artist requires access to certain resources that a farmer as a farmer would find useless.

Hence, if individuals wish to control their own development according to their will, they need to control the distribution of resources through a system of private property relations. It is important to remember Green's argument that the truly moral life must be self-imposed. A person who is forced to live in a certain way, for example, by communal property relations and communal rights of appropriation, cannot live a truly morally life. This is because without the experience of choosing bad ways to live, the individual cannot value or know what better living is LPPO This is the case even if the outward appearance is perfection, because even then the way of life has not been internalised, it has not been freely chosen PE Yet, in many ways the most significant benefit of a system of private property relations is the self-discipline it produces in the individual LFC — If the individual does not learn to act in such a way that he can achieve his long-term goals, then he will be unable to develop the strength of character needed to overcome the short-sighted desires which he experiences but which if followed would prevent him from gaining true self-satisfaction LFC Notice that Green is not concerned merely with private ownership, but with ownership resulting from the individual's own free labour.

The state should not freely distribute goods to people who are capable of working for it themselves. The state should only distribute goods in this way when the individual cannot gain the resources for himself, for example, because he is disabled. Striving to attain private property is instrumentally valuable. The consequences of this freedom include the creation of different levels of resource-holdings between individuals.

That is, the resulting society is not egalitarian LPPO However, an unequal distribution of resources is morally defensible in Green's eyes, because it is in this way that the different talents possessed by different people are actualised to the greatest possible extent LPPO Hence, both rich and poor are best served in this way. Green recognises the naivety of supporting extreme inequality of wealth on the grounds that the system which has allowed it is essential for the poor's moral development LPPO His point is that these inequalities are necessary to raise everyone's standard of living to a level sufficient for moral development.

Why does Green believe this? It could be argued that the capitalist market necessarily operates in such a way that some people inevitably suffer such extreme poverty that their lives will be meaningless. He recognises that there are many people who, while being formally able to appropriate, have no real power to do so. For this reason, they cannot command a wage in the market which is sufficient to empower their formal ability to appropriate.

They will not bother to save as they are so cynical about their prospects for self-advancement and breed so quickly that they merely perpetuate these evils LPPO Furthermore their poverty forces them to accept a state of near-slavery — enduring bad working conditions, hours and housing which causes which cause ill-health and even death. They are thereby forced to seek comfort in alcohol and shallow past-times, and to neglect their own education and that of their children LFC — Indeed, this is the ground on which he analyses, for example, his contemporary factory legislation LFC — and licensing laws LFC — He argues that the fundamental cause of the conditions of the working classes is the manner in which current land holdings were acquired.

This has had at least two effects. The workers have been conditioned to take orders and not to exercise their own judgement. They are forced to accept any work they can find and so to endure low wages and poor conditions. This leads to little incentive to either save or make long-term plans. Thus, the proletariat have not come to see themselves as capable of or deserving of freedom, nor as having any real family responsibilities.

In this way, workers have been denied the power to develop. They cannot actualise their potential to become self-conscious and self-determining beings. Secondly, landlords have been given rights which they should not possess; that is, rights which are contrary to the development of the species. One example is the right to unlimited appropriation of the land. Thus, although things other than land can be legitimately appropriated without restraint, the acquisition of land must be regulated. Land is the precondition of all other forms of ownership, and so must be granted to everybody to some degree LPPO For example, everyone must occupy some area of land, even if it is merely the land under your feet.

If all land was privately owned by landlords, everyone else could justly be excluded from the world. This would be an incredible infringement of the development of the eternal consciousness. In more realistic terms, private control of land allows private control of what happens on that land. The landlords would then have the power to restrict the workers' free exercise of their consciences and the free execution of their life plans. The basis of rights — the service of the eternal consciousness — is contradicted. Without real freedom, individuals are denied the chance to realise their personal conception of the good.

They do not have the opportunity to implement long-term plans, nor the self-discipline which an autonomous life brings. One interesting point is that landlords could and sometimes did serve the eternal consciousness by banning public houses from their land. However, this furtherance of the eternal consciousness does not affect Green's basic and very valid point. Yet, exactly how the state should regulate private property in land will depend on national circumstances and history LPPO Given Green's ambivalence to private ownership of land, systems of communal ownership with private use may well have been acceptable to him They are at least broadly consistent with his wider moral theory.

Does this apply to wealth? As was shown, Green's presumption is for private ownership. Land was special because of its limited supply and its importance for all other property holdings. Hence, he argues that the problem is not with having wealth as such, but is with producing and distributing it. In his discussion, he highlights two difficult areas — freedom of bequest and free trade LPPO The problem is that they may both lead to great concentrations of wealth, and hence of power to restrict others' liberty LPPO Green argues that a necessary part of planning one's future for one's self is deciding the fate of one's wealth LPPO For example, part of holding private property is being able to act benevolently through giving to charity and other gifts.

This includes the right to determine the distribution of one's wealth immediately after one's death. By this, Green means that a man's actions are partially geared towards certain goals which are based on the existence and life of his children and friends. The removal of the individual's ability to execute his Will is, thus, a restriction on his will. In fact, Green is only really concerned with bequest. He is less sympathetic to inheritance for many reasons. For example, no child has laboured for the wealth he inherits. This is important because, as was shown, the positive condition for holding property is labour. Also, Green states explicitly that a man is perfectly justified in not leaving his wealth to a child whose actions he disapproves of LPPO The right of the child in this passage LPPO is couched far more in terms of the right to being correctly brought up.

He must argue this to be consistent. The important point about the right of bequest is that it enables a person to make a certain sort of plan which affects the manner in which he lives his life, and in which he raises his children, and makes explicit judgements about those he believes will outlive him. Still, there is a problem in that such freedom of bequest helps to maintain the inequalities of wealth in society. The poor are apparently condemned to remain in poverty, because wealth can be kept within the same family, or, at best, class. Green argues that there are several reasons for believing that this concentration of wealth will be avoided, reduced or offset in society.

Firstly, natural family affection will counter customs and laws which support the giving of wealth to one child only — usually the eldest son LPPO Indeed, a law of primogeniture is illegitimate as it inhibits a man's right to distribute his wealth as he wishes LPPO Presumably, this is a larger contribution than he would have made if he had not inherited the wealth. The third reason, and the most promising for Green, is that it is legitimate for the state to tax the individual's income and wealth, on the grounds that it provides security for his holdings and acquisitions LPPO This is an important and powerful argument.

Yet, interestingly, Green's benefit theory denies an individual's absolute right to private property in capital. For taxation to be consistent with purely private property, the individual must in some sense give his consent for his money to be taken. However, for Green, there need not be even tacit consent for taxation to be legitimate. The state has a right to raise taxation from inheritance because of the benefits it gives, rather than the consent it receives. He argues that redistributive taxation is legitimate, because the state protects the individual's rights to inheritance and bequest.

Rights are only legitimate when they serve the development of the eternal consciousness. Taxation can do this, and when it does, the state has right to tax the individual which overrides the latter's right to private property. There is a call for a right to gain private property at the same time as it is partially denied. Yet, Green's justification is always explicitly limited by the need to be of service to the eternal consciousness. Green's advocacy of redistributive taxation is, thus, consistent with his wider teleological theory. In this way, the self-interested activities of businessmen also serve the social good. However, this is an incredible oversimplification of what actually happens in the market. For Green's assertion to be valid, he must assume that each individual has the same purchasing power.

Only in this way will each pound which is spent represent the same level of need. The problem is that given inequalities of wealth in the economy which Green sees as inevitable and often beneficial under capitalism , the value of each pound does not represent the same level of need irrespective of who spends it. For example, an extra hundred pounds is worth far more to a poor man than it is to a rich one. The distribution of goods within the capitalist market is, thus, far more concerned with demand from blocks of wealth rather than genuine need. The inequalities of wealth which arise in capitalism are too great for his present argument to be taken seriously. This is good, because in becoming a successful capitalist, the worker must learn to plan and execute his actions coherently.

This requires rational thought and self-discipline. Green's last justification of capitalism to be discussed here is his most powerful. Even the poor are made better off because the wealth held by the rich is used in such a way that is raises the standard of living of everyone in society. The significant rise in the standard of living of the British working classes since the Industrial Revolution has been the result of free trade and government legislation to protect the workers' from exploitation LFC — This is Green's most powerful justification for private property.

It has been shown that Green's theory of property is — or, at least, tries to be — based squarely on his teleology. Thus, he argues that generally a system of private property is the best arrangement for promoting the eternal consciousness in society as a whole. Where it contradicts this end, private property is illegitimate. This creates his ambivalence about the private ownership of land and his call for the taxation of bequests. Whilst his arguments for free trade are interesting, they are also often limited by his economic naivety. For example, he underestimates the power of the rich to exclude the poor from economic success.

Bearing this in mind, one must question the consistency of his attachment to private property. Rights to property may have moved from the family to the individual, but that does not mean that they cannot move on to the species. Indeed, this would seem to be the logical conclusion of Green's argument that the individual must come to recognise that their truly common telos is in living as members of the human race. Despite this, Green's discussions of property are always based on his assessment of whether, in general, a given practice or property right serves the development of the eternal consciousness. In this way, his argument is consistent. Green's influence and philosophical reputation remained strong well into the early years of the twentieth century.

Followers such as Edward Caird, Bernard Bosanquet and Francis H Bradley did much refine Green's thought and to extend his principles to the circumstances of a new epoch. Hobhouse and J. The mid-twentieth century saw a number of influential attacks being launched against the movement, most notably from H. Interest in Green's thought has gradually revived not least due to the work of Alan Milne and Peter Nicholson. An important collections of new essays appeared in Dimova-Cookson and Mander, eds. A new edition of Green's Works was published in , which includes over pages of previously unpublished material edited by Peter Nicholson. Alberto de Sanctis has edited Green's remaining undergraduate essays de Sanctis, , pp.

Clarendon reprinted the fifth edition of Green's Prolegomena to Ethics in , replacing Edward Caird's preface with an introductory essay by David Brink. Life 2. Religious Thought 3. The Eternal Consciousness 4. The Theory of the Will 5. Social Theory and Conscientious Agency 6. The Principles of State Action 7. Theory of Rights 8. The Principles of Green's Political Economy 9. Sidgwick sought to clarify his own reaction in the recollection that he sent to Charlotte Green following Green's death: I ought not to omit to say that in those later years I more than once had occasion to enter into public controversy with him in reviews and articles: and — as I afterwards learnt — my controversial manner gave offence to some of his enthusiastic disciples.

But he himself never manifested the least sense of offence by any written and spoken word: or ever changed in the least degree for a moment the frank cordality of his intercourse. I was really in the wrong, this was magnanimous: in any case, I feel it to be worthy of him and characteristic. Religious Thought Developments in geology and evolutionary theory, as well as the impact of Higher Criticism, led many mid-nineteenth century Christians to question the doctrinal authority of the Church of England, and the moral views and allegiances which it was purported to justify.

Under this intellectual dominion we had lost all touch with the Ideals of life in Community. There was a dryness in the Oxford air, and there was singularly little inspiration to be felt abroad. We were frightened; we saw everything passing into the tyranny of rational abstract mechanism … Then at last, the walls began to break. A world of novel influences began to open to us. Philosophically the change in Oxford thought and temper came about mainly through the influence of T.

He broke for us the sway of individualistic Sensationalism. He released us from the fear of agnostic mechanism. He gave us back the language of self-sacrifice, and taught us how we belonged to one another in the one life of high idealism. We took life from him at its spiritual value. Hence, the tradition of the Christian church, [-] though, according to the original theory expressed by Tertullian, it had its source in oral communications of Christ to his apostles, and was the necessary complement, [-] soon came, by an insensible instinct of self-preservation, to affiliate itself to them, and to refashion the parent after the supposititious child's likeness.

CD The formalisation of Jesus' teaching transformed Christianity from a fluid, developing, personal faith into a static theology authorised by an ecclesiastical elite. It is only now that we can appreciate this truth, for, though the religious imagination may require, as historically it did require whether it does [now] is not so certain , a a belief in the manifestation of God under the ordinary conditions of a human life as its starting-point, it equally requires that this belief should pass into b a belief in a person now spiritually present to and in us. I Jesus continues to bring hope to us all precisely because he attained salvation without standing in a unique relation to the indwelling spirit of God WNT.

From this again it comes to mean human nature as subject to delusion and vice, human ignorance and selfishness. Of this, however incompletely it may be actualised in himself, he in a sense feels the possibilities, unless selfish interests have closed the avenues of his heart, through sympathy with the higher life of society about him. It is an ultimate fact of which the true interpretation is all-important. WNT In short, the true believer should test for himself his own beliefs against the beliefs of the fellow members of his spiritual community.

The Eternal Consciousness Over the years, scholars have disagreed significantly about the relation of Green's religious thought to his wider philosophical position. He is not merely a Being who has made us, in the sense that we exist as an object of the divine consciousness in the same way in which we must suppose the system of nature so to exist; with whom we are in principle one; with whom the human spirit is identical, in the sense that He is all which the human spirit is capable of becoming. PE The spark of the eternal consciousness in every individual that aspect of the individual which is God drives its manifestation in the individual's consciousness and praxis.

Christian dogma, then, must be retained in its completeness, but it must be transformed into a philosophy. Its first characteristic, as an intuition become abstract, must vanish, that it may be assimilated by reason as an idea. The progress of thought in general consists in its struggle to work itself free from the mere individuality and outwardness of the object of intuition. The thing as sensible, i. On examination, however, it will be found that there is a sense in which the idea is at once the complement of the intuition and its justification. CD —3 Not only does the philosopher operate according to different criteria of meaning and truth than the religious believer, but the philosopher's analysis and critique has precedence over religious intuition, in the sense that ultimately specific religious intuitions have validity only if they can be restated in philosophical terms and then justified on purely philosophical grounds.

The Theory of the Will This section examines the ways in which the eternal consciousness develops through the minds of individuals and the institutions of society. Social Theory and Conscientious Agency Green holds that the individual's application of moral rules is itself a form of moral education. The Principles of State Action Yet there remains a fundamental tension between individual freedom and the necessity for political structures which must be faced by any philosophical doctrine. Theory of Rights If the individual is to follow his conscience, then he must be free from external interference.

More specifically, Green argues that, A right is a power of which the exercise by the individual or by some body of men is recognised by a society either as itself directly essential to a common good or as conferred by an authority of which the maintenance is recognised as so essential LPPO Green writes: [t]he rationale of property, in short, requires that everyone who will conform to the positive condition of possessing it, viz. LPPO This passage sets out Green's reasons for believing that private property is morally important in his society. General Assessment Green's influence and philosophical reputation remained strong well into the early years of the twentieth century.

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Kemp, J. Vesey ed. Reprinted in his Credibility of Divine Existence , edited by A. Porteous, R. MacLennon, and G. Davie, London: MacMillan, , pp. Knapp, V. Knox, H. Lamont, W. Laski, Harold J. Grisewood ed. Laurie, S. Leighton, D. Lewis, H.

This argument Thomas Monson Biography Essay be Thomas Monson Biography Essay. Miller, Helen Socratess Argument Analysis. London: Thomas Monson Biography Essay and William Boone, Over the years, scholars have disagreed significantly Thomas Monson Biography Essay the relation of Green's religious thought to his wider philosophical position. Such a shift altered fundamentally the Christian's Thomas Monson Biography Essay of Thomas Monson Biography Essay relationships to other believers, to disadvantages of email marketing church, and to God. Thomas Monson Biography Essay, David.