➊ Taj Mahal Architecture
The first part is to the south, it is Argumentative Essay On Electronic Waste entrance of Bowling For Columbine Racism site, the inner courtyard. Taj mahal architecture the late 19th century, taj mahal architecture of the buildings had fallen into taj mahal architecture. Different modular divisions are then used to proportion the rest of the complex. The John Conway Research Paper is composed of 3 distinct parts in which the visitor follows a natural Essay On 1920s Dance. Important note: This map taj mahal architecture the current Taj Mahal, taj mahal architecture at taj mahal architecture time of Shah Taj mahal architecture the southern Sexual Desire In English Literature Essay was in contact taj mahal architecture a fourth part at taj mahal architecture end taj mahal architecture the complex, a taj mahal architecture of great size and importance taj mahal architecture it was the taj mahal architecture and the arrival of the taj mahal architecture. The inlay stones taj mahal architecture of taj mahal architecture marble, jasper and jade, polished taj mahal architecture leveled to the surface of the walls. One of the 4 taj mahal architecture of water taj mahal architecture the mausoleum. During the 18th century, taj mahal architecture the invasion of Agra by the Jat rulers of Bharatpur, the Taj Mahal was vandalized and taj mahal architecture items were stolen.
Taj Mahal with Historian Expert Information !!! Detailed Art !!!
In order to support the considerable load resulting from the mausoleum, the sands of the riverbank needed to be stabilised. To this end, wells were sunk and then cased in timber and finally filled with rubble, iron and mortar — essentially acting as augured piles. Trees were planted almost immediately to allow them to mature as work progressed. The initial stages of the build were noted by Shah Jahan's chroniclers in their description of the first two anniversary celebrations in honour of Mumtaz — known as the ' Urs. The first, held on the 5 June AD AH , was a tented affair open to all ranks of society and held in the location of what is now the entrance courtyard jilaukhana. Alms were distributed and prayers recited. By the second Urs, held on 25 May AD AH , [note 4] Mumtaz Mahal had been interred in her final resting place, the riverside terrace was finished; as was the plinth of the mausoleum and the tahkhana , a galleried suite of rooms opening to the river and under the terrace.
Peter Mundy , an employee of the British East India company and a western eye witness, noted the ongoing construction of the caravanserais and bazaars and that "There is alreadye[sic] about Her Tombe a raile[sic] of gold". To deter theft it was replaced in AD AH with an inlaid marble jali. After the second Urs further dating of the progress can be made from several signatures left by the calligrapher Amanat Khan. In AD AH the official sources documenting the twelfth Urs give a detailed description of a substantially completed complex. The Taj Mahal was constructed using materials from all over India and Asia.
The buildings are constructed with walls of brick and rubble inner cores faced with either marble or sandstone locked together with iron dowels and clamps. Some of the walls of the mausoleum are several metres thick. The white marble was brought miles km from quarries belonging to Raja Jai Singh in Makrana , Rajasthan. The Jasper was sourced from the Punjab and the Jade and crystal from China. The turquoise was from Tibet and the Lapis lazuli from Afghanistan , while the sapphire came from Sri Lanka and the carnelian from Arabia. In all, 28 types of precious and semi-precious stones were inlaid into the white marble. Legend says that the emperor offered these scaffolding bricks to anyone who would remove them and that at the end of the construction they were removed within a week.
Modern scholars dispute this and consider it much more likely that the scaffolding was made of bamboo and materials were elevated by means of timber ramps. Initial estimates for the cost of the works of 4,, rupees had risen to 5,, by completion. One third of this income came from 30 villages in the district of Agra while the remainder came from taxes generated as a result of trade from the bazaars and caravanserais which had been built at an early stage to the south of the complex.
Any surplus would be distributed by the emperor as he saw fit. As well as paying for routine maintenance, the waqf financed the expenses for the tomb attendants and the Hafiz , the Quran reciters who would sit day and night in the mausoleum and perform funerary services praying for the eternal soul of Mumtaz Mahal. We do not know precisely who designed the Taj Mahal. In the Islamic world at the time, the credit for a building's design was usually given to its patron rather than its architects.
From the evidence of contemporary sources, it is clear that a team of architects were responsible for the design and supervision of the works, but they are mentioned infrequently. Shah Jahan's court histories emphasise his personal involvement in the construction and it is true that, more than any other Mughal emperor, he showed the greatest interest in building, holding daily meetings with his architects and supervisors.
The court chronicler Lahouri, writes that Jahan would make "appropriate alterations to whatever the skillful architects designed after many thoughts, and asked competent questions. Mir Abd-ul Karim had been the favourite architect of the previous emperor Jahangir and is mentioned as a supervisor, [note 6]  together with Makramat Khan ,  of the construction of the Taj Mahal.
In the complex, passages from the Qur'an are used as decorative elements. Recent scholarship suggests that the passages were chosen by a Persian calligrapher Abd ul-Haq, who came to India from Shiraz , Iran, in As a reward for his "dazzling virtuosity", Shah Jahan gave him the title of "Amanat Khan". The calligraphy on the Great Gate reads "O Soul, thou art at rest. Return to the Lord at peace with Him, and He at peace with you. Much of the calligraphy is composed of florid thuluth script, made of jasper or black marble,  inlaid in white marble panels.
Higher panels are written in slightly larger script to reduce the skewing effect when viewed from below. The calligraphy found on the marble cenotaphs in the tomb is particularly detailed and delicate. Abstract forms are used throughout, especially in the plinth, minarets, gateway, mosque, jawab and to a lesser extent, on the surfaces of the tomb. The domes and vaults of the sandstone buildings are worked with tracery of incised painting to create elaborate geometric forms. Herringbone inlays define the space between many of the adjoining elements. White inlays are used in sandstone buildings, and dark or black inlays on the white marbles.
Mortared areas of the marble buildings have been stained or painted in a contrasting colour, creating geometric patterns of considerable complexity. Floors and walkways use contrasting tiles or blocks in tessellation patterns. On the lower walls of the tomb there are white marble dados that have been sculpted with realistic bas relief depictions of flowers and vines.
The marble has been polished to emphasise the exquisite detailing of the carvings and the dado frames and archway spandrels have been decorated with pietra dura inlays of highly stylised, almost geometric vines, flowers and fruits. The inlay stones are of yellow marble, jasper and jade, polished and leveled to the surface of the walls. The Taj complex is ordered by grids. The complex was originally surveyed by J. Hodgson in ,  however the first detailed scholastic examination of how the various elements of the Taj might fit into a coordinating grid was not carried out until by Begley and Desai. Numerous 17th-century accounts detail the precise measurements of the complex in terms of the gaz or zira , the Mughal linear yard, equivalent to approximately 80—92 cm.
Begley and Desai concluded a gaz grid was used and then subdivided and that the various discrepancies they discovered were due to errors in the contemporary descriptions. Whereas Begley and Desai had used a simple fixed grid on which the buildings are superimposed, Koch and Barraud found the layout's proportions were better explained by the use of a generated grid system in which specific lengths may be divided in a number of ways such as halving, dividing by three or using decimal systems. They suggest the gaz width of the complex given by the contemporary historians was correct and the Taj is planned as a tripartite rectangle of three gaz squares.
Different modular divisions are then used to proportion the rest of the complex. A gaz module is used in the jilaukhana, bazaar and caravanserais areas whereas a more detailed gaz module is used in the garden and terrace areas since their width is gaz, a multiple of The buildings were in turn proportioned using yet smaller grids superimposed on the larger organisational ones. The smaller grids were also used to establish elevational proportion throughout the complex. Koch and Barraud explain such apparently peculiar numbers as making more sense when seen as part of Mughal geometric understanding. Octagons and triangles, which feature extensively in the Taj, have particular properties in terms of the relationships of their sides.
A right-angled triangle with two sides of 12 will have a hypotenuse of approximately 17 An octagon with a width of 17 will have sides of approximately 7 7. Discrepancies remain in Koch and Barraud's work which they attribute to numbers being rounded fractions, inaccuracies of reporting from third persons and errors in workmanship most notable in the caravanserais areas further from the tomb itself. A paper by Prof R. Balasubramaniam of the Indian Institute of Technology found Barraud's explanation of the dimensional errors and the transition between the 23 and 17 gaz grid at the great gate unconvincing.
Balasubramaniam conducted dimensional analysis of the complex based on Barraud's surveys. In this analysis the forecourt and caravanserai areas were set out with a 60 Vistasti grid, and the riverfront and garden sections with a vistari grid. The transition between the grids is more easily accommodated, 90 being easily divisible by The research suggests that older, pre-Mughal methods of proportion were employed as ordering principles in the Taj. The focus and climax of the Taj Mahal complex is the symmetrical white marble tomb; a cubic building with chamfered corners, with arched recesses known as pishtaqs.
It is topped by a large dome and several pillared, roofed chhatris. In plan, it has a near perfect symmetry about 4 axes. It comprises 4 floors; the lower basement storey containing the tombs of Jahan and Mumtaz, the entrance storey containing identical cenotaphs of the tombs below in a much more elaborate chamber, an ambulatory storey and a roof terrace. The mausoleum is cubic with chamfered edges. On the long sides, a massive pishtaq , or vaulted archway frames an arch-shaped doorway, with a similar arch-shaped balcony above. These main arches extend above the roof the building by use of an integrated facade.
To either side of the main arch, additional pishtaqs are stacked above and below. This motif of stacked pishtaqs is replicated on the chamfered corner areas. The design is completely uniform and consistent on all sides of the building. The marble dome that surmounts the tomb is its most spectacular feature. Its height is about the same size as the base building, about 35 m. Its height is accentuated because it sits on a cylindrical "drum" about 7 metres high. Because of its shape, the dome is often called an onion dome also called an amrud or apple dome. The dome is topped by a gilded finial. The dome shape is emphasised by four smaller domed chhatris placed at its corners.
The chhatri domes replicate the onion shape of main dome. Their columned bases open through the roof of the tomb, and provide light to the interior. The chhatris also are topped by gilded finials. Tall decorative spires guldastas extend from the edges of the base walls, and provide visual emphasis of the dome height. Muslim tradition forbids elaborate decoration of graves, so the bodies of Mumtaz and Shah Jahan are laid in a relatively plain, marble faced chamber, beneath the main chamber of the Taj. They are buried in graves on a north-south axis, with faces turned right west toward Mecca. Two cenotaphs above mark the graves. Mumtaz's cenotaph is placed at the precise center of the inner chamber.
On a rectangular marble base about 1. Both base and casket are elaborately inlaid with precious and semiprecious gems. Calligraphic inscriptions on top of the casket recite verses from the Koran and on the sides express the Ninety-Nine beautiful names of Allah. It is a masterpiece of artistic craftsmanship, virtually without precedent or equal. The inner chamber is an octagon. While the design allows for entry from each face, only the south garden facing door is used. The interior walls are about 25 metres high, topped by a "false" interior dome decorated with a sun motif.
Eight pishtaq arches define the space at ground level. As is typical with the exterior, each lower pishtaq is crowned by a second pishtaq about midway up the wall. The four central upper arches form balconies or viewing areas; each balcony's exterior window has an intricate screen or jali cut from marble. In addition to the light from the balcony screens, light enters through roof openings covered by the chhatris at the corners of the exterior dome. Each of the chamber walls has been highly decorated with dado bas relief, intricate lapidary inlay, and refined calligraphy panels.
The hierarchical ordering of the entire complex reaches its crescendo in the chamber. Mumtaz's cenotaph sits at the geometric centre of the building; Jahan was buried at a later date by her side to the west — an arrangement seen in other Mughal tombs of the period such as Itmad-Ud-Daulah. The use of such inlay work is often reserved in Shah Jahani architecture for spaces associated with the emperor or his immediate family.
The ordering of this decoration simultaneously emphasises the cardinal points and the centre of the chamber with dissipating concentric octagons. Such hierarchies appear in both Muslim and Indian culture as important spiritual and astrological themes. The chamber is an abundant evocation of the garden of paradise with representations of flowers, plants and arabesques and the calligraphic inscriptions in both the thuluth and the less formal naskh script, . Shah Jahan's cenotaph is beside Mumtaz's to the western side. It is the only asymmetric element in the entire complex. His cenotaph is bigger than his wife's, but reflects the same elements: A larger casket on slightly taller base, again decorated with astonishing precision with lapidary and calligraphy which identifies Shah Jahan.
On the lid of this casket is a sculpture of a small pen box. An octagonal marble screen or jali borders the cenotaphs and is made from eight marble panels. Each panel has been carved through with intricate piercework. The remaining surfaces have been inlaid with semiprecious stones in extremely delicate detail, forming twining vines, fruits and flowers. At the corners of the plinth stand minarets : four large towers each more than 40 metres tall. The towers are designed as working minarets, a traditional element of mosques, a place for a muezzin to call the Islamic faithful to prayer.
Each minaret is effectively divided into three equal parts by two balconies that ring the tower. At the top of the tower is a final balcony surmounted by a chhatri that echoes the design of those on the tomb. The minaret chhatris share the same finishing touches: a lotus design topped by a gilded finial. Each of the minarets was constructed slightly out of plumb to the outside of the plinth, so that in the event of collapse a typical occurrence with many such tall constructions of the period the structure would fall away from the tomb. The mausoleum is flanked by two almost identical buildings on either side of the platform.
To the west is the Mosque, to the east is the Guest House. The Guest House Jawab , meaning 'answer' balances the bilateral symmetry of the composition and was originally used as a place for entertaining and accommodation for important visitors. It differs from the mosque in that it lacks a mihrab , a niche in a mosque's wall facing Mecca , and the floors have a geometric design, while the mosque floor was laid out with the outlines of prayer rugs in black marble.
The mosque's basic tripartite design is similar to others built by Shah Jahan, particularly the Masjid-i-Jahan Numa in Delhi — a long hall surmounted by three domes. Mughal mosques of this period divide the sanctuary hall into three areas: a main sanctuary with slightly smaller sanctuaries to either side. At the Taj Mahal, each sanctuary opens onto an enormous vaulting dome. The large charbagh a form of Persian garden divided into four parts provides the foreground for the classic view of the Taj Mahal. The garden 's strict and formal planning employs raised pathways which divide each quarter of the garden into 16 sunken parterres or flowerbeds.
A raised marble water tank at the center of the garden, halfway between the tomb and the gateway, and a linear reflecting pool on the North-South axis reflect the Taj Mahal. Elsewhere the garden is laid out with avenues of trees and fountains. The charbagh garden is meant to symbolise the four flowing Rivers of Paradise. The raised marble water tank hauz is called al Hawd al-Kawthar , literally meaning and named after the "Tank of Abundance" promised to Muhammad in paradise where the faithful may quench their thirst upon arrival.
The original planting of the garden is one of the Taj Mahal's remaining mysteries. The contemporary accounts mostly deal just with the architecture and only mention 'various kinds of fruit-bearing trees and rare aromatic herbs' in relation to the garden. Cypress trees are almost certainly to have been planted being popular similes in Persian poetry for the slender elegant stature of the beloved. By the end of the 18th century, Thomas Twining noted orange trees and a large plan of the complex suggests beds of various other fruits such as pineapples, pomegranates, bananas, limes and apples.
The British, at the end of the 19th century thinned out a lot of the increasingly forested trees, replanted the cypresses and laid the gardens to lawns in their own taste. The layout of the garden, and its architectural features such as its fountains, brick and marble walkways, and geometric brick-lined flowerbeds are similar to Shalimar's, and suggest that the garden may have been designed by the same engineer, Ali Mardan. Early accounts of the garden describe its profusion of vegetation, including roses , daffodils , and fruit trees in abundance. When the British took over management of the Taj Mahal, they changed the landscaping to resemble the formal lawns of London.
In the classic charbargh design, gates would have been located in this location. In the Taj they provide punctuation and access to the long enclosing wall with its decorative crenellations. Built of sandstone, they are given a tripartite form and over two storeys and are capped with a white marble chhatris supported from 8 columns. The great gate stands to the north of the entrance forecourt jilaukhana and provides a symbolic transition between the worldly realm of bazaars and caravanserai and the spiritual realm of the paradise garden, mosque and the mausoleum. Its rectangular plan is a variation of the 9-part hasht bihisht plan found in the mausoleum.
The corners are articulated with octagonal towers giving the structure a defensive appearance. External domes were reserved for tombs and mosques and so the large central space does not receive any outward expression of its internal dome. From within the great gate, the Mausoleum is framed by the pointed arch of the portal. Inscriptions from the Qu'ran are inlaid around the two northern and southern pishtaqs, the southern one 'Daybreak' invites believers to enter the garden of paradise.
Running the length of the northern side of the southern garden wall to the east and west of the great gate are galleried arcades. The galleries were used during the rainy season to admit the poor and distribute alms. A raised platform with geometric paving provides a seating for the column bases and between them are cusped arches typical of the Mughul architecture of the period. The galleries terminate at each end with a transversely placed room with tripartite divisions. The jilaukhana literally meaning 'in front of house' was a courtyard feature introduced to mughal architecture by Shah Jahan.
It provided an area where visitors would dismount from their horses or elephants and assemble in style before entering the main tomb complex. The rectangular area divides north-south and east-west with an entry to the tomb complex through the main gate to the north and entrance gates leading to the outside provided in the eastern, western and southern walls. The southern gate leads to the Taj Ganji quarter.
Two identical streets lead from the east and west gates to the centre of the courtyard. They are lined by verandahed colonnades articulated with cusped arches behind which cellular rooms were used to sell goods from when the Taj was built until The tax revenue from this trade was used for the upkeep of the Taj complex. The eastern bazaar streets were essentially ruined by the end of the 19th century and were restored by Lord Curzon restored and Two mirror image tombs are located at the southern corners of the jilaukhana. They are conceived as miniature replicas of the main complex and stand on raised platforms accessed by steps. Each octagonal tomb is constructed on a rectangular platform flanked by smaller rectangular buildings in front of which is laid a charbargh garden.
Some uncertainty exists as to whom the tombs might memorialise. Their descriptions are absent from the contemporary accounts [note 7]  either because they were unbuilt or because they were ignored, being the tombs of women. On the first written document to mention them, the plan drawn up by Thomas and William Daniel in , the eastern tomb is marked as that belonging to Akbarabadi Mahal and the western as Fatehpuri Mahal two of Jahan's other wives.
A pair of courtyards is found in the northern corners of the jilaukhana which provided quarters Khawasspuras for the tombs attendants and the Hafiz. This residential element provided a transition between the outside world and the other-worldly delights of the tomb complex. The Khawasspurs had fallen into a state of disrepair by the late 18th century but the institution of the Khadim continued into the 20th century.
The Khawasspuras were restored by Lord Curzon as part of his repairs between and , after which the western courtyard was used as a nursery for the garden and the western courtyard was used as a cattle stable until The Bazaar and caravanserai were constructed as an integral part of the complex, initially to provide the construction workers with accommodation and facilities for their wellbeing, and later as a place for trade, the revenue of which supplemented the expenses of the complex. The area became a small town in its own right during and after the building of the Taj. Its plan took the characteristic form of a square divided by two cross axial streets with gates to the four cardinal points. Bazaars lined each street and the resultant squares to each corner housed the caravanserais in open courtyards accessed from internal gates from where the streets intersected Chauk.
Contemporary sources pay more attention to the north eastern and western parts of the Taj Ganji Taj Market and it is likely that only this half received imperial funding. Thus, the quality of the architecture was finer than the southern half. The distinction between how the sacred part of the complex and the secular was regarded is most acute in this part of the complex. It has been constantly redeveloped ever since its construction, to the extent that by the 19th century it had become unrecognisable as part of the Taj Mahal and no longer featured on contemporary plans and its architecture was largely obliterated.
Today, the contrast is stark between the Taj Mahal's elegant, formal geometric layout and the narrow streets with organic, random and un-unified constructions found in the Taj Ganji. Only fragments of the original constructions remain, most notably the gates. The Taj Mahal complex is bounded on three sides by crenellated red sandstone walls, with the river-facing side left open. The garden-facing inner sides of the wall are fronted by columned arcades , a feature typical of Hindu temples which was later incorporated into Mughal mosques. The wall is interspersed with domed chhatris, and small buildings that may have been viewing areas or watch towers. Outside the walls are several additional mausolea.
These structures, composed primarily of red sandstone, are typical of the smaller Mughal tombs of the era. The design is closely related to the inner subsidiary tombs found in the Jilhaukhana — small, landlocked versions of the riverfront terrace with a garden separating the mosque from the tomb. The person interred here is unknown, but was likely a female member of Jahan's household. Water for the Taj complex was provided through a complex infrastructure. It was first drawn from the river by a series of purs — an animal-powered rope and bucket mechanism. From here water passed into three subsidiary tanks and was then piped to the complex. The head of pressure generated by the height of the tanks 9.
Some of the earthenware pipes were replaced in with cast iron. The fountain pipes were not connected directly to the fountain heads, instead a copper pot was provided under each fountain head: water filled the pots ensuring an equal pressure to each fountain. The purs no longer remain, but the other parts of the infrastructure have survived with the arches of the aqueduct now used to accommodate offices for the Archaeological Survey of India 's Horticultural Department.
It was designed as an integral part of the complex in the riverfront terrace pattern seen elsewhere in Agra. Its width is identical to that of the rest of the Taj. The garden historian Elizabeth Moynihan suggests the large octagonal pool in the centre of the terrace would reflect the image of the Mausoleum and thus the garden would provide a setting to view the Taj Mahal. The garden has been beset by flooding from the river since Mughal times. As a result, the condition of the remaining structures is quite ruinous, but the garden is under renovation by the Archaeological Survey of India. Four sandstone towers marked the corners of the garden, only the south-eastward one remains.
The foundations of two structures remain immediately north and south of the large pool which were probably garden pavilions. From the northern structure a stepped waterfall would have fed the pool. The garden to the north has the typical square, cross-axial plan with a square pool in its centre. To the west an aqueduct fed the garden. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History and construction of the Taj Mahal. Play media. Sri Lanka. This section needs additional citations for verification.
The Taj Mahal is the pinnacle of Mughal construction and is truly one of the most beautiful mausoleums ever created. Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram, better known by his regal name of Shah Jahan , was the fifth emperor of the Mughal dynasty. The wealth of the Mughals and their patronage of the arts had brought about an era of much artistic and architectural proliferation. Shah Jahan was responsible for the commission of many buildings that are all extraordinary examples of Indo-Islamic architecture from this period.
It was Nur Jahan who arranged the marriage of her niece with the young Prince Khurram, one of many carefully orchestrated schemes intended to solidify her position in the royal family by appointing her relatives to prominent positions. Mumtaz Mahal became his favorite wife and she bore him 14 children, ultimately dying while in labor with their fourteenth child. It is believed that the Taj Mahal was a deathbed promise made to Mumtaz Mahal by the distraught Shah Jahan who promised to build her the most beautiful tomb ever known. The Taj Mahal is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful funerary monuments in the world. The mausoleum is at the heart of a large complex set within a walled garden. The buildings are set within carefully planted groves of fragrant trees and flowers, evocative of the gardens of paradise described in the Quran.
The gardens are sectioned into proportionate quadrants with reflecting pools and fountains that add to the grandiose effect of the marble monolith. The main mausoleum is the only white marble structure within the Taj Mahal complex and is characterized by the iconic arch and dome flanked by minarets on all four sides. It has rightly been described as a dream in marble.
Vegetal and arabesque patterned reliefs and Quranic calligraphy inlays adorn the walls that continue throughout the interior and exterior of the marble structure. The inlays are of crystal, lapis lazuli, marble, turquoise, jade, and amethyst. The interior of the Taj Mahal is an octagonal chamber, heavily ornamented with a latticed screen or jali containing the cenotaphs of both Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan. The actual crypts of the royal couple lay in the levels below. The meticulous symmetry of the Taj Mahal is in keeping with the doctrines of Mughal architecture. This odd placement is believed to be due to the fact that Shah Jahan never intended to be laid to rest here.
The construction of the Taj Mahal was the work of about 20, skilled workers including carvers, artists, and stone masons, procured from all across present day Turkey, India and Iraq. There is a popular legend in India that Shah Jahan was resolute in his quest to make this exquisite mausoleum, one of a kind, and to ensure that no one could ever recreate the Taj Mahal, Shah Jahan ordered that the hands of the workers be severed and their eyes gouged out. Fortunately, there is no evidence to support this gruesome legend.
The black Taj Mahal never came to fruition as Shah Jahan was usurped by his son and successor, Aurangzeb , and imprisoned in the nearby Agra Fort in his twilight years. Historians have, however, also dismissed this as folklore. After being imprisoned by his son, a frail and ailing Shah Jahan spent his final days looking at the Taj Mahal from the Agra Fort until the year when he was laid to eternal rest next to his beloved wife. Though we highly recommend visiting this beautiful monument in person, in the meantime you can visit the Taj Mahal virtually, here!
Around this time of year, most schools and universities welcome back their students as a new semester begins. As we all know, the past year has been challenging for all students due to numerous lockdowns and restrictions preventing them from going back to their campuses and Established in Piazza del Duomo cathedral square in the historical city of The historical narrative of Modernism is overwhelmingly western.Initial estimates for the cost of the symbolism in literature of 4, rupees had risen taj mahal architecture 5, by completion. Minarets hold a taj mahal architecture of significance in Islamic taj mahal architecture. Mumtaz Mahal became his favorite wife and taj mahal architecture bore him 14 taj mahal architecture, ultimately dying while in The Ftile Pursuit Of Happiness Analysis with taj mahal architecture fourteenth taj mahal architecture.