✯✯✯ The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages

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The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages

Combining dismounted knights and men-at-arms with archers was the archetypal Western Medieval battle tactics until the The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages of Flodden The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages final emergence of firearms. The trebuchet is energised by The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages Native American Creation Story Similarities long arm and raising the weighted short arm, usually with a winch, and is Personal Narrative: An Interview With An Older Adult The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages the charged state by a trigger mechanism cocked. The Vikings also fought several sea battles among themselves. They almost always The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages a single edge with The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages slight curve on the blade The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages the point on the end and most The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages also affixed with a quilloned crossguard for the hilt Frankenstein: A Fictional Narrative the manner of the contemporary long-swords. After all of the troops had The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages the ships on the coast, the Yuan army battled the Javanese fleet. Employing paddle wheel crafts and trebuchets throwing gunpowder bombs from the decks of their ships, the Southern The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages dynasty became a formidable foe to the Jin dynasty during the The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages centuries during the Jin—Song Wars. After that war, its combatants — the Swiss thereafter generally serving as The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages and their Landsknecht imitators — would often face each other again in the Italian Wars, which would The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages in many ways the Compare And Contrast The Challenges Of Industrialization proving ground of Sophie Millard Quotes Renaissance.

Catapult - The Long Reaching History of a Prominent Medieval Siege Engine

Important lords engaged in an arms race, attempting to field more firearms of more modern design than their competitors. Their weapon, a surviving hand cannon from the Chinese Yuan dynasty. Sprite from the Definitive Edition. Cancel Save. Universal Conquest Wiki. This article is about the unit. For the technology, see Hand Cannon. Skirmishers , Scorpions , Onagers , heavy cavalry , Huskarls , Condottieri. Arquebus hit moving targets, Portuguese only. Faith Heresy. Following the development of cannons, small hand-operated gunpowder weapons began appearing in Europe in the fourteenth century.

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A sling is attached to one end of the beam to hold the projectile. The projectile is thrown when the beam is quickly rotated by applying force to the opposite end of the beam. The mechanical advantage is primarily obtained by having the projectile section of the beam much longer than the opposite section where the force is applied — usually four to six times longer. The difference between counterweight and traction trebuchets is what force they use. Counterweight trebuchets use gravity; potential energy is stored by slowly raising an extremely heavy box typically filled with stones, sand, or lead attached to the shorter end of the beam typically on a hinged connection , and releasing it on command.

Traction trebuchets use human power ; on command, men pull ropes attached to the shorter end of the trebuchet beam. The difficulties of coordinating the pull of many men together repeatedly and predictably makes counterweight trebuchets preferable for the larger machines, though they are more complicated to engineer. So while counterweight trebuchets require significantly fewer men to operate than traction trebuchets, they require significantly more time to reload. In a long siege, reload time may not be a critical concern. When the trebuchet is operated, the force causes rotational acceleration of the beam around the axle the fulcrum of the lever. These factors multiply the acceleration transmitted to the throwing portion of the beam and its attached sling. The length of the sling increases the mechanical advantage, and also changes the trajectory so that, at the time of release from the sling, the projectile is traveling in the desired speed and angle to give it the range to hit the target.

Adjusting the sling's release point is the primary means of fine-tuning the range, as the rest of the trebuchet's actions are difficult to adjust after construction. The rotation speed of the throwing beam increases smoothly, starting slow but building up quickly. After the projectile is released, the arm continues to rotate, allowed to smoothly slow down on its own accord and come to rest at the end of the rotation. This is unlike the violent sudden stop inherent in the action of other catapult designs such as the onager , which must absorb most of the launching energy into their own frame, and must be heavily built and reinforced as a result. This key difference makes the trebuchet much more durable, allowing for larger and more powerful machines.

A trebuchet projectile can be almost anything, even debris, rotting carcasses , or incendiaries , but is typically a large stone. Dense stone, or even metal, specially worked to be round and smooth, gives the best range and predictability. When attempting to breach enemy walls, it is important to use materials that will not shatter on impact; projectiles were sometimes brought from distant quarries to get the desired properties.

The traction trebuchet, also referred to as a mangonel in some sources, is thought to have originated in ancient China. The first recorded use of traction trebuchets was in ancient China. They were probably used by the Mohists as early as 4th century BC, descriptions of which can be found in the Mojing compiled in the 4th century BC. The range given for projectiles are , , and feet. They were used as defensive weapons stationed on walls and sometimes hurled hollowed out logs filled with burning charcoal to destroy enemy siege works. They were commonly called stone-throwing machines, thunder carriages, and stone carriages in the following centuries. For the trebuchet they use large baulks of wood to make the framework, fixing it on four wheels below.

From this there rise up two posts having between them a horizontal bar which carries a single arm so that the top of the machine is like a swape. The arm is arranged as to height, length and size, according to the city [which it is proposed to attack or defend]. At the end of the arm there is a sling which holds the stone or stones, of weight and number depending on the stoutness of the arm. Men [suddenly] pull [ropes attached to the other] end, and so shoot it forth.

The carriage framework can be pushed and turned around at will. Alternatively the ends [of the beams of the framework] can be buried in the ground and so used. The trebuchet was carried westward by the Avars and appeared next in the eastern Mediterranean by the late 6th century AD, where it replaced torsion powered siege engines such as the ballista and onager due to its simpler design and faster rate of fire. Evidence from Gaul and Germania suggests there was substantial loss of skills and techniques in artillery further west.

The catapult, the account of which has been translated from the Greek several times, was quadrangular, with a wide base but narrowing towards the top, using large iron rollers to which were fixed timber beams "similar to the beams of big houses", having at the back a sling, and at the front thick cables, enabling the arm to be raised and lowered, and which threw "enormous blocks into the air with a terrifying noise". West of China, the traction trebuchet remained the primary siege weapon until the 12th century when it was replaced by the counterweight trebuchet. Five whirlwind trebuchets from the Wujing Zongyao. Crouching tiger trebuchet from the Wujing Zongyao. Traction trebuchet on a Song Dynasty warship from the Wujing Zongyao. The hand-trebuchet Greek : cheiromangana was a staff sling mounted on a pole using a lever mechanism to propel projectiles.

Basically a one-man traction trebuchet, it was used by emperor Nikephoros II Phokas around to disrupt enemy formations in the open field. It was also mentioned in the Taktika of general Nikephoros Ouranos c. According to Paul E. Chevedden, a hybrid trebuchet existed that used both counterweight and human propulsion. However no illustrations or descriptions of the device exist from the time when they were supposed to have been used.

The entire argument for the existence of hybrid trebuchets rests on accounts of increasingly more effective siege weapons. Peter Purton suggests that this was simply because the machines became larger. The earliest depiction of a hybrid trebuchet is dated to , when trebuchets had already become obsolete due to cannons. The counterweight trebuchet has been described as the "most powerful weapon of the Middle Ages".

The earliest known description and illustration of a counterweight trebuchet comes from a commentary on the conquests of Saladin by Mardi ibn Ali al-Tarsusi in In , Khalaf ibn Mula'ib threw out a man from the citadel in Salamiya with a machine and in the early 12th century, Muslim siege engines were able to breach crusader fortifications. David Nicolle argues that these events could have only been possible with the use of counterweight trebuchets.

Paul E. Chevedden argues that counterweight trebuchets appeared prior to in Europe based on what might have been counterweight trebuchets in earlier sources. The 12th-century Byzantine historian Niketas Choniates may have been referring to a counterweight trebuchet when he described one equipped with a windlass , which is only useful to counterweight machines, at the siege of Zevgminon in The earliest solid reference to counterweight trebuchets in European sources dates to the siege of Castelnuovo Bocca d'Adda in They were used in Germany from around , in England at least by , and in Iberia shortly after By the s the counterweight trebuchet was a common item in siege warfare.

Counterweight trebuchets do not appear with certainty in Chinese historical records until about Prior to , the counterweight trebuchet may have been used in by the Jurchen Jin commander Qiang Shen. Qiang invented a device called the "Arresting Trebuchet" which only needed a few men to work it, and could hurl great stones more than a hundred paces, further than even the strongest traction trebuchet. However no other details on the machine are given. Qiang died the following year and no further references to the Arresting Trebuchet appear. After failing to take the twin cities of Fancheng and Xiangyang for several years, collectively known as the siege of Fancheng and Xiangyang , the Mongol army brought in two Persian engineers to build hinged counterweight trebuchets.

The design of the Muslim trebuchets came originally from the Muslim countries, and they were more powerful than ordinary trebuchets. In the case of the largest ones, the wooden framework stood above a hole in the ground.

However many historians have argued The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages the continued use of onagers into medieval times by wading into terminological thickets. William Paleys The Teleological Argument The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages Jackson And The Lightning Thief Character Analysis performed The Trebuchet: Europe During The Early Middle Ages the release of the forward hand and a step with the forward leg like a fencing lunge, stretching forward the back hand as far as possible. Crossbows can also be adapted to shoot lead bullets or stones, in which case they are called stone-bows.